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API 20B-2020 pdf free download

API 20B-2020 pdf free download.Open Die Shaped Forgings for Use in the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry.
The total hot work reduction ratio is defined as the product of the individual reduction ratios achieved at each steg in the hot work operation, from ingot cross section to the final hot work Cross section. The ingot Cross sectior js obtained atter casting or the final remelt step and any ingot grinding or surface preparation prior to the hot working. When the cross-section of the starting material or forged part varies, the cross-section resulting in the lowest calculated hot work ratio is used. 3.1.15 inclusions Particles of nonmetallic compounds of metals and impurity elements, such as oxides, sufides, or silicates, that are present in ingots and are carried over in wrought products. 3.1.16 ingot A cast product intended for subsequent remelting or hot working by rlling, forging, or extrusion. 3.1.17 adlerefiningl Practices used on molten steel Iin the Jadle that are used to adjust and refine the melt chemistry. 3.1.18 forging manufacturer An organization that performs forging activities in conformancejwith this specification. 3.1.19 melt practice Type of process used to produce a heat of metal. Includes the use of equipment for melting and refining. 3.1.20 on-site Forging manufacturer’s facility. 3.1.21 open die forging Process where the hot mechanical forming of metals between flat or shaped dies in which metal flow is not completely restricted.
3.1.22 outsourced outsourced activity A function or process that is performed by an external supplier conforming to a quality management system for the activities performed on behalf of the forging manufacturer. 3.1.23 prolongation An extension of metal added to a forging to permit removal and subsequent testing without destroying the forging. This extension is integrally made during the forging process and removed after final heat treatment. 3.1.24 relevant surface indication Surface-rupture NDE indication with major dimensions greater than 3/16 in. (5 mm). NOTE Inherent indications not associated with a surface rupture are considered non-relevant. 3.1.25 rolled ring Circular open die forgings produced on a ring mill. 3.1.26 starting material The raw material used to produce a forging. Examples are billets, ingots, and blooms. 3.1.27 technical audit An onsite documented review of procedures, processes, and controls performed by competent personnel. 3.1.28 traceability The ability to verify the history, location, or application of an item by means of documented recorded identification. 3.1.29 wrought structure A hot worked or forged structure that contains no cast dendritic elements. A change in the basic type of forge equipment used (mechanical, press, hammer, ring roller, etc.) from the forging that was previously qualfed requires requalificatioln of the forging. Any change of the subgroup in material groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 from Table 2 requires a requalfication. 4.3.4 FSL-4 Qualification requirements specified for FSL-1, FSL-2, and FSL-3l are required for FSL-4. A change in the actual melt source used to supply the starting material from the forging that was previously qualifed requires requalification of the forging. Achange in specific material grade within a subgroup requires requalification of the forging (for example. 4130 and 4140 require separate qualfications). A change in the immediate post-forge thermal process used from the forging that was previously qualfied requires requalification of the forging. 4.4 Qualification Forging Ev aluation 4.4.1 Visual Examination Visual inspection of the forging shall be performed in accordance with the forging manufacturer’s procedures for cracks, laps, seams, and other anomalies. Results shall be documented and the material shall be dispositioned. For Group 4, the microstructure shall be evaluated by techniques appropriate to characterize the alloy. The micrographic examination shall include a sample taken from the qualification forging and its qualification test coupon at the same location as specimens taken for mechanical testing. The ferrite content shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E562 or ASTM E1245. The ferrite content shall be in the range of 35 % to 65 % (volume fraction). Samples shall be electrolytically etched in either NaOH or KOH, and in such a manner as to provide maximum contrast for austenite and ferrite phase discrimination. A minimum of 15 fields and 16 points per field shall be used.

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