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API Bull E2-2006 pdf free download

API Bull E2-2006 pdf free download.Bulletin on Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Oil and Gas Production.

6.3 CONTAINED NORM Loose NORM, such as scale from tubing or sludge or from vessel cleaning, should be stored in sealed and marked containers on pallets or racks. No liquids should be stored for extended periods of time due to package degradation. Containers and equipment should be handled, moved, and stored in a way that prevents the escape of loose radioactive material into the environment. Con- tainers and equipment should be inspected periodically and should be immediately repacked or resealed if found to be leaking. 6.4 SEALED OPENINGS All openings on stored equipment or tubing containing NORM should be capped, plugged, or wrapped in plastic to prevent the spread of radioactive materials. 6.5 CLEANING EXTERIOR SURFACES If the exterior surfaces of containers, tubing, and equipment must be cleaned to remove external NORM material, such cleaning should be done in accordance with the NORM removal guidelines in Section 5 of this document. All process water that contains NORM should be contained, recirculated, or filtered to remove material. The ultimate disposal of waste water should be by approved methods and in accordance with applicable permit requirements. 6.6 PREVENTING DISPERSAL OF NORM MATERIAL To protect soil and surface water from dispersal in the NORM storage area, plastic ground covers should be utilized when han- dling unsealed containers or equipment. NORM waste that falls on the plastic cover should be recovered and stored in sealed con- tainers. Water discarded must comply with applicable regulations. The operator should ensure that necessary discharge permits have been secured. 6.7 NOTIFYING EMPLOYEES AND CONTRACTORS Employees or contractors who enter NORM storage areas should be informed of the presence of radioactive materials, the safety problems associated with exposure to radioactive materials, and the methods of minimizing exposure to radiation.
6.8 WORKER PROTECTION GUIDELINES Employees and contractors working in NORM storage areas should adhere to the guidelines given in Section 4, “Worker Protec- tion.” 6.9 SIGNS OUTSIDE STORAGE AREA Areas where NORM is stored should be identified with signs at all entrances, bearing the three-bladed radiation symbol (magenta blades on yellow background) and words like “Caution, Radioactive Material Storage Area.” If whole-body radiation exposure at any point within the storage area exceeds 5 mrem (0.05 mSv) in 1 hour (29 CFR §1910.1096(d) (3)(ii)), the sign should contain the words “Radiation Area.” 6.10 LABELS ON DRUMS AND EQUIPMENT Containers, tubing, or equipment containing NORM should be tagged or labeled. The label should contain wording similar to the following: WARNING: NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL AVOID BREATHING DUSTS This label should include an identification code that corresponds to records of the material. Separate labels may not be needed for each joint of casing, tubing, or pipe if the joints are stored together. 6.11 RECORD KEEPING Records should be maintained to document at least the following information: a. An identification code b. The storage location of the material c. The type of radioactive material (scale, sludge, etc.) d. The date the material or equipment entered storage e. The original location of the material or equipment and the type of service f. Measurement data that reflect the radioactivity of each container and piece of equipment g. Results of radioactive surveys of the NORM storage area h. Radiation exposure data for individuals required by OSHA regulations to wear personnel monitoring equipment i. Training documentation
The purpose of this section is to provide general information regarding the shipment of NORM-impacted materials. Recent revi- sions to the Department of Transportation (DOT) guidelines that became effective in 2004 have had a significant impact on the transportation of NORM-impacted material. The reader is advised to seek assistance from a waste management specialist to ship NORM-impacted materials that are classified as radioactive waste. Operators should consult applicable federal, state, and local regulations and waste management specialists to determine what specific regulations may apply and how they should be inter- preted. 7.1 FEDERAL AND STATE REGULATION DOT regulates the transportation of hazardous materials affecting interstate commerce through its regulations in 49 CFR Parts 171-180. Intrastate transportation of hazardous materials is regulated by state agencies, which have generally adopted the federal regulations. The state regulatory agency is usually the Department of Public Safety, the Department of Transportation, or the Department of Motor Vehicles.

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