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API MPMS 12.3-1996 pdf free download

API MPMS 12.3-1996 pdf free download.Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 12- Calculation of I Petroleum Quantities .
The majority of the available data covering blends of light and heavy hydrocarbons in- dicates that the change in volume is a shrinkage. However, there are ample data in the work by Booker, showing expansion of certain mixtures of crude oils with light hydrocarbons. Similar diversity in behavior is observed in mixtures of two and three pure components, as documented in the review by Battino.5 These results were excluded from the database used to derive this new correlation, because they cannot be predicted simply on the basis of den- sity. Also, because there are few data available showing the variation of shrinkage with tem- perature and pressure, these variables have been ignored in deriving the new equation. Therefore, it is recommended that the correlation be used only for predictions near 15°C (60°F) and between 100 kilopascals (15 pounds per square inch absolute) and 700 kilo- pascals (115 pounds per square inch absolute), since the data were obtained under these conditions. For situations where there may be a doubt about the applicability of the new equation or tables, it is recommended that one of the test methods discussed in Appendix C be used to provide the best possible analysis for a specific application. 1 Scope This standard provides a procedure to quantify the volume shrinkage that occurs when blending lighter hydrocarbons (580- 890 kilograms per cubic meter, 112- -27 degrees APD) with crude oils (644 -979 kilograms per cubic meter, 88 -13 degrees APD). Shrinkage factors are computed from the standard densities of the hydrocarbon and the crude oil (in either International System of Units [SI] or customary units) and the volume fraction of the hy- drocarbon. The standard also recommends precautions when using the tables and provides guidance about the range of components it covers. The purpose of this standard is to provide a procedure to quantify the volume reduction that occurs when mixing hydrocarbons of different density or API gravity.
Eight oil and pipeline companies provided volumetric shrinkage data. There were 460 data points at light component concentrations up to 21 percent and 48 data points at light compo- nent concentrations between 21 and 50 percent. Most of the data came from Childress.3 Later work at Shell Oil by Scott’t indicated that shrinkage values calculated from Equa- tion 1 could be significantly in error for concentrations above 30 percent. He also noted that Equation 1 does not predict a maximum shrinkage near 50 percent or returm to 0 for 100 percent concentration. Scott measured volumetric shrinkage data to about 90 percent light and developed a correlation with maximum shrinkage near 50 percent that returns to 0 for 100 percent concentration. (See Figure B-3.) In the 1980s, with changes in oil movements resulting in greatly increased intermixing of crudes, condensates, and light hydrocarbons and recognition that there were potential shortcomings in the API 2509C shrinkage correction tables, there was an increased inter- est in more accurately accounting for shrinkage by broadening the base of crudes evalu- ated in development of the shrinkage tables. To address these concerns, a Committee on Dynamic Petroleum Measurement (CODM) Working Group was organized in the spring of 1980 to review and revise API Bulletin 2509C. At first, enlarging the shrinkage database with laboratory tests was considered but the es- timated costs were prohibitive. As an altemate solution, an extensive literature search was undertaken, which is summarized below. The literature search resulted in a selection of shrinkage information from four main sources, which provided a wider database covering essentially the full range of 0 to 100 percent concentrations of light in heavy hydrocarbon mixes. Robinson,6 in his work, proposed a spiked crude density prediction method based on the COSTALD7 equation.

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