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API MPMS 14.12 2017 pdf free download

API MPMS 14.12 2017 pdf free download.Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 14—Natural Gas Fluid Measurement Section 12—Measurement of Gas by Vortex Meters.
1 Scope This Standard addresses the following: a) provides generic information on full-bore vortex shedding flowmeters, including glossary, and sets of engineering equations useful in specifying performance; b) describes vortex shedding flowmeters in which alternating vortices are shed from one or more bluff bodies installed in a closed conduit; c) describes how the vortex shedding frequency is used to determine the velocity to infer the volume, mass, and/or energy flow rate and the total gas flow through the meter over a specific time interval; d) applies only to single phase gas flows in closed conduit that are steady or vary slowly in time. For fiscal measurement, the output of the flow rate shall be within the acceptable limits of steady state flow rate; e) describes the physical components of vortex shedding flowmeters and identifies need for inspection, certification, and material traceability; f) addresses the effect of gas properties, installation, and process conditions that may affect the measurement uncertainty and describes guidelines for reducing or eliminating their influences; g) defines the method for calculating uncertainty of the flow rate measurement; h) defines the meter output requirements and necessary information pertaining to the meter output for the purpose of fiscal measurement of gas; and i) provides calibration and/or performance verification guidance for the field application. 2 Normative References The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. API MPMS Chapter 4.5, Master Meter Provers, 2011 API MPMS Chapter 4.2, Displacement Provers, Reaffirmed 2011 API MPMS Chapter 14.2, AGA Report No. 8/GPA 8185, Compressibility Factors of Natural Gas and other Related Hydrocarbon Gases, Reaffirmed 2012
3.1.8 manufactured pulses Pulse outputs generated by transmitter electronics that are proportional to flow or some other parameter by means of analog or digital signal processing and might include some type of filtering. Manufactured pulses can have a delay that may lead to a bias error that should be considered during proving runs to ensure synchronization with prover. 3.1.9 nominal K-factor The number of pulses generated or electronically manufactured by the meter per indicated unit volume. 3.1.10 period jitter The small random variation that occurs in the vortex shedding period from one vortex cycle to another because vortex shedding is a result of a hydrodynamic instability, even at constant flow rates. 3.1.11 permanent pressure drop or permanent pressure loss The differential pressure between the inlet and downstream location of the meter after the pressure recovery at a given flow rate. The permanent pressure drop is a function of velocity through the meter, meter inside diameter and flowing fluid properties such as density and viscosity. 3.1.12 primary element for vortex meter The primary element that responds to the change in the variable (velocity) that is being monitored in the flow tube of a vortex meter is the shedder bar. 3.1.13 rangeability The capability of a meter or flow measuring device to operate between the minimum and maximum flow range within a specified uncertainty; expressed as the ratio of maximum flow to the minimum flow. See also 3.1.20. 3.1.14 repeatability Measurement precision under a set of repeatable conditions of measurement. 3.1.15 Reynolds number (Re) A dimensionless parameter, using the appropriate equation, that is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces and is a function of unobstructed bore diameter, average velocity of the fluid in the unobstructed diameter, fluid density, and absolute (dynamic) viscosity of the fluid.
3.1.18 swirl Swirl is a condition in which the flow has a rotational (tangential) component in addition to the axial velocity component. 3.1.19 systematic uncertainty The uncertainty associated with systematic errors that cannot be reduced by increasing the number of measurements. 3.1.20 turbulent flow In turbulent flow, random eddying flow patterns are superimposed upon the general flow progressing in a given direction. The transition from smooth, uniform laminar flow to turbulent flow generally occurs as the Reynolds number increases from about 2300 to 4000 or more.

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