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API Publ 4261-2001 pdf free download

API Publ 4261-2001 pdf free download.Alcohols and Ethers A Technical Assessment of Their Application as Fuels and Fuel Components.
1 Introduction and Scope 1.1 GENERAL 1.1.1 In 1971 the American Petroleum Institute (API) stud- ied the feasibility of blending ethanol with gasoline to aug- ment domestic fuel supplies for transportation. 1 After the first Arab oil embargo in 1974, interest in using alcohols as fuels expanded to include methanol, not only as a transportation fuel, but also as a fuel for stationary power sources. In response to that expanded interest, the API published an updated technical assessment in 1976.2 1.1.2 Since 1976, many changes have occurred in the use of petroleum and non-petroleum fuels, both neat and in blends with hydrocarbon components. The earlier objective of augmenting domestic energy sources was joined by two additional objectives: a) to produce high octane gasoline without the use of lead alkyls, and b) to reduce the contribu- tion of motor vehicles and stationary sources to air pollution. In response to the expanded use of oxygenates, API published a second updated technical assessment in 19883 Today, fed- eral law requires that oxygenates be blended with gasoline in the wintertime in certain areas and be a part of reformulated gasoline in specified areas of the United States. 1.1.3 The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 expanded the interest in alcohols and ethers. The Clean Air Act Amend- ments of 1990 mandated the use of oxygenates to reduce win- tertime carbon monoxide emissions in carbon monoxide nonattainment areas. It also required oxygenates in reformu- lated gasoline (RFG) which is mandated for use in extreme and severe ozone nonattainment areas and other ozone nonat- tainment areas which opt to require reformulated gasoline. Nonattainment areas are those areas not meeting the statutory federal standards for ambient carbon monoxide (carbon mon- oxide nonattainment areas) and ozone (ozone nonattainment areas).
1.1.6 This technical assessment, therefore, has been expanded to include a review of the oxygenate regulations and the technical literature that has been published between 1988 and 1999. This publication summarizes information on producing and applying alcohols and ethers as fuels and fuel components. The alcohols and ethers that are consid- ered include a) methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), tertiary-amyl methyl ether (TAME), ethyl tertiary- butyl ether (ETBE), and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) as fuel components; b) methanol and ethanol (both neat and mixed with low levels of hydrocarbons) as transportation fuels; and c) methanol in stationary power sources. This publication assesses the technical advantages and disadvantages of alco- hols and ethers with respect to hydrocarbon fuels. The anal- ysis also addresses the following factors: a) the costs associated with producing alcohols and ethers, b) distribu- tion, storage, and fire protection and safety concerns, and c) health and environmental concerns. 1.2 REFERENCES 1. American Petroleum Institute Committee for Air and Water Conservation,“Use of Alcohol in Motor Gasoline- A Review,” API Report No.4082, August 1971. 2. American Petroleum Institute Alcohol Fuels Task Force, “Alcohols – A Technical Assessment of Their Application as Fuels,” API Report No.4261, July 1976. 3. American Petroleum Institute Alcohol Fuels Task Force, “Alcohols and Ethers – A Technical Assessment of Their Application as Fuels and Fuel Components,” API Report No. 4261, July 1988.
2.2 HEATING VALUE Because molecules of alcohols and ethers cary oxygen, they require less oxygen for complete combustion than do hydrocarbons with corresponding numbers of hydrogen and carbon atoms. Table 4 shows the oxygen requirements for complete combustion of oxygenates. The oxygen content of an alcohol or ether produces no heat of combustion and, thus, a volume or weight of oxygenate produces less heat from combustion than that of a hydrocarbon. The lowest molecular weight oxygenate of interest, methanol or MeOH, produces about one-half the heat energy of gasoline, either on a weight or volume basis. Higher molecular weight oxygenates pro- duce as much as 85 to 90% of the heat energy of gasoline.

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