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API Publ 4701-2000 pdf free download

Executive Summary The objective of this Primer is to describe the science of bioaccumulation in the aquatic environment as it relates to federal and state regulatory activities facing the petroleum industry. As chemicals that accumulate in organisms have come under increased scrutiny, both federal and state agencies have begun to implement additional regulations that limit chemical releases, and reduce exposure to humans and wildlife. These regulations affect the levels of chemicals that may be discharged to the environment, discharge reporting requirements, and responses to existing environmental contamination. Scientific issues regarding bioaccumulation are discussed in detail in American Petroleum Institute (API) publication number 4656, Bioaccumulation: How Chemicals Move from the Water into Fish and Other Aquatic Organisms (API, 1997). This Primer provides a brief overview of these issues, and an expanded discussion of selected chemicals, including arsenic, mercury, nickel, selenium, dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Among these, mercury, selenium, and dioxins have faced particular scrutiny due to their potential to accumulate in fish at concentrations that may be harmful to wildlife and humans.
Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative On March 23, 1995, USEPA finalized the Water Quality Guidance for the Great Lakes System, otherwise known as the GLI. Implementation of the GLI began two years later in the states surrounding the Great Lakes. The GLI sets three types of water quality standards for (1) the protection of aquatic life; (2) the protection of human health; and (3) the protection of wildlife. Although the GLI only finalized water quality criteria for a handful of chemicals, the guidance sets forth the process for determining additional criteria for many more chemicals. Bioaccumulation is a critical consideration in the derivation of both human health and wildlife criteria. Protection of Human Health. The GLI contains human health criteria, known as human cancer values and human noncancer values, for 18 pollutants, as well as methodologies to derive criteria for additional chemicals. Separate methodologies are provided for chemicals that meet minimum data requirements (Tier I), and chemicals for which less information is available (Tier II). In all cases, bioaccumulation factors are used to derive water quality criteria to protect individuals from adverse health effects (including an increased cancer risk of 1 in 100,000 or 1 x 1 0 -5 ) due to consumption of aquatic organisms and water, including incidental ingestion of water during recreational activities.
Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) Strategy The objective of the USEPA’s PBT strategy is to reduce risks to human and ecological health by reducing exposure to PBT pollutants. PBT chemicals are defined by USEPA as those chemicals that are resistant to degradation in the environment, remain in the environment a long time, and may travel long distances (persistent); accumulate in fish and other organisms (bioaccumulative); and have been demonstrated to cause adverse effects in humans or wildlife (toxic). To date, USEPA has identified 12 PBT chemicals, including mercury, dioxins, and one PAH (benzo(a)pyrene). USEPA’s program is designed to address issues on an Agency-wide basis. Over the last year, several program offices have developed strategies to manage PBT chemicals and meet the PBT goals, as described below. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). To prevent the introduction of new PBT chemicals, USEPA has revised the pre-manufacture notice process under TSCA to include a new category of PBT chemical substances or mixtures. The new PBT chemical category under TSCA includes chemicals that have half-lives of greater than two months and bioaccumulation factors greater than 1000. These chemicals will be subjected to additional testing requirements before their manufacture is permitted. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The recently developed Draft RCRA Waste Minimization PBT Chemical List of 53 chemicals was developed by screening for persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. The 53 chemicals on the RCRA List will be used by USEPA to: (1) measure progress toward the national goal to reduce generation of PBT chemicals by 50 percent by the year 2005; (2) report national progress on a periodic basis; (3) identify and acknowledge industrial sectors that contribute to national progress;

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