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API Publ 4703-2001 pdf free download

API Publ 4703-2001 pdf free download.Gas Fired Boiler—Test Report Refinery Site A Characterization of Fine Particulate Emission Factors and Speciation Profiles from Stationary Petroleum Industry Combustion Sources.
PROJECT OVERVIEW In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new ambient air standards for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from petroleum industry combustion sources, and such information that is available is fairly old. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation that occurs after the gases leave the stack. This issue was extensively reviewed by API in a recent report (England et al., 1997), which concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative sample from combustion systems. These techniques have been widely used in research studies (Hildemann et al., 1994; McDonald et al., 1998), and use clean ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample and provide 80-90 seconds residence time for aerosol formation prior to sample collection for determination of mass and chemical speciation. As a result of the API review, a test protocol was developed based on the dilution sampling system described in this report, which was then used to collect particulate emissions data from petroleum industry combustion sources, along with emissions data obtained from conventional sampling methods. This test program is designed to provide reliable source emissions data for use in assessing the contribution of petroleum industry combustion sources to ambient PM2.5 concentrations. The goals of this test program were to: · Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols; · Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions.
PROJECT OBJECTIVES The specific objectives of this test were to: Primary objectives · Compare PM2.5 mass measured using an in-stack filter and an iced impinger train (EPA Method 201A/202), and mass measured using a dilution tunnel; · Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for organic aerosols and PM2.5 mass; · Characterize sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in particulate matter collected on filter media after stack gas dilution; · Characterize key secondary particle precursors in stack gas samples: volatile organic compounds (VOC) with carbon number of 7 and above; sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ); and oxides of nitrogen (NO X ); · Document the relevant process design characteristics and operating conditions during the test. Secondary Objective · Characterize ions (sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), OC, and EC in particulate collected on filter media in stack gas sampling trains. TEST OVERVIEW The scope of testing is summarized in Table 1-1. The emissions testing included collection and analysis of both in-stack and diluted stack gas samples. All emission samples were collected from the stack of the unit. An ambient air sample also was collected. The samples were analyzed for the compounds listed in Table 1-2. Boiler process data and fuel gas samples were collected during the tests to document operating conditions. Source Level (In-stack) Samples In-stack sampling and analysis for filterable (total, PM10 and PM2.5) and condensible particulate matter (CPM), NO x , oxygen (O 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO) and SO 2 was performed using traditional EPA methods. In-stack cyclones and filters were used for filterable particulate matter. Sample analysis was expanded to include OC, EC and organic species on the in-stack quartz filters.
Dilution Stack Gas Samples Dilution sampling was used to characterize PM2.5 including aerosols formed in the near-field plume. The dilution sampler extracted a sample stream from the stack into a mixing chamber, where it was diluted approximately 6:1 with purified ambient air. Because PM2.5 behaves aerodynamically like a gas at typical stack conditions, the samples were extracted nonisokinetically. A slipstream of the mixed and diluted sample was extracted where it resided for approximately 80 seconds to allow time for low-concentration aerosols, especially organics, to condense and grow. The diluted and aged sample then passed through cyclone separators sized to remove particles larger than 2.5 microns, after which samples were collected on various media: high-purity quartz, Teflon ¨ membrane filter (TMF), and Teflon ¨ -impregnated glass fiber (TIGF) filters; a polyurethane foam (PUF)/Amberlite ¨ sorbent resin (XAD-4)/PUF cartridge to collect gas phase semivolatile organic compounds; and a Tenax cartridge to VOCs. Three samples were collected on three sequential test days.

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