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API Publ 4716-2002 pdf free download

API Publ 4716-2002 pdf free download.Buried Pressurized Piping Systems Leak Detection Guide.
A. Background Because of the complex physical configuration and unique operational characteristics of buried pressurized piping systems found in petroleum product terminals and airport hydrant fueling systems, proven leak detection technologies have not previously been available. However, within the last few years, several technology vendors and companies have worked to develop and improve leak detection technologies for these unique piping systems. The purpose of this Study was to assess the success of their efforts to date. In 1997, the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the Air Transport Association of America (ATA) formed a joint Leak Detection Committee to review the new generation of leak detection technologies for potential application to petroleum product terminal piping as well as the hydrant fueling systems at airports. The Leak Detection Committee defined its goals as follows: ÒIdentify and evaluate reliable leak detection technologies that are currently commercially available and cost-effective for buried piping associated with airport hydrant fueling systems and petroleum product terminals.Ó B. Program Structure The Leak Detection Committee adopted a three- phased approach to the leak detection Study. In the first phase, the Study consultants collected published data and vendor information regarding the leak detection technologies reported to be applicable to the buried, pressurized piping in airport hydrant fueling systems and petroleum product terminals. In addition, during Phase I, the Committee discussed and identified criteria for evaluating the leak detection technologies in the specified applications. The following twelve evaluation criteria were identified: ¥ Availability of technology ¥ Capability of detecting small leaks ¥ Operational reliability ¥ Accuracy (defined as the ability of the technology to closely match the actual leak rate) After identifying the evaluation criteria, the Committee applied the criteria to the leak detection technologies that had been identified in the early part of Phase I. Through this process, six existing leak detection technologies were determined to be potentially applicable to airport hydrant fueling systems and petroleum product terminals. The Committee then developed testing protocols for testing these technologies in the field. The following is an outline of the Phase I activities that were undertaken: § Phase IA Ð Gather Data ¥ Solicitation of Vendors and Data ¥ Evaluation of Vendors and Technologies ¥ Discussions with Vendors ¥ Development of Screening Matrix ¥ Organization of Data from Vendors ¥ Analysis of Data ¥ Selection of Vendors and Technologies § Phase IB Ð Prepare Testing Facilities ¥ Determine Facility Requirements ¥ Evaluate Potential Facilities ¥ Secure Test Facility ¥ Develop Facility/System Concept ¥ Design Facility/System Modifications ¥ Construct Facility/System Modifications ¥ Conduct Base Line Tests of Systems Phase II of the Study consisted of actual testing of the technologies under specified conditions. The following is an outline of specific tasks that were undertaken during Phase II of the Study: § Phase II Ð Implement Testing ¥ Organize and Schedule Testing ¥ Prepare Written Procedures ¥ Prepare Written Protocols ¥ Prepare Vendors for Testing ¥ Set up Technologies for Testing ¥ Conduct and Monitor Tests ¥ Gather and Analyze Testing Data
D. Testing Facilities A significant element of this Study was the testing of technologies on operational buried piping systems under field conditions. The existing airport hydrant fueling system at Kansas City Mid-Continent International Airport (MCI) in Kansas City, Missouri was utilized. The facility at MCI was selected in large part because the piping systems are representative of the buried pressurized piping systems found at both petroleum product terminals and airport hydrant fueling systems. In addition, MCI was chosen because the fueling system has redundant lines that allowed certain lines to be isolated for the Study testing while others were maintained for airport operations. To create a test facility at MCI, piping manifolds and headers with double block and bleed valves for positive shutoffs were installed at necessary locations. In this manner, the two pipelines dedicated for testing were isolated from the three lines that continued to serve normal airport fueling operations. These modifications to the airport hydrant fueling system at MCI resulted in a test facility that included the following components: ¥ A 210,000 gallon (5,000 barrel) aboveground jet fuel storage tank; ¥ 2400 gpm pumping and filtration equipment; ¥ 14-inch and 16-inch transfer lines, each approximately 10,000 feet in length; ¥ 2500 feet of 12-inch hydrant system piping, with twenty hydrant pits, around a passenger terminal building; and ¥ 3000 feet of 8-inch tank return and system recirculation piping.

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