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API RP 1133-2005 pdf free download

API RP 1133-2005 pdf free download.Guidelines for Onshore Hydrocarbon Pipelines Affecting High Consequence Floodplains.
3.2 buoyancy: The tendency of an object to rise when submerged within a fluid. 3.3 carbon dioxide (CO 2 ): A fluid consisting of more than 90% carbon dioxide molecules compressed to a super- critical state. 3.4 clamshell: An excavator which consists of a dredging bucket with two hinged, jaw-like pieces. 3.5 cofferdam: A temporary structure built around a site to permit construction in (relatively) dry conditions. 3.6 cribbing: A temporary structure to support a pipeline and/or its components. 3.7 cuttings: A mixture of drilling mud and soil that is generated during drilling operations. 3.8 erosion: The wearing away of soil or other material by the action of water or other agents. 3.9 floodplain: The area adjacent to a watercourse that may be submerged by floodwaters. 3.10 gabions: Steel wire mesh baskets filled with stone used to prevent erosion. 3.11 gas: Natural gas, flammable gas, or gas which is toxic or corrosive. 3.12 geology: A science that deals with the surface and subsurface features of the earth (i.e., topography, bodies of water, watercourses, subsoil formations and character). 3.13 hazardous liquid: Petroleum, petroleum products, or anhydrous ammonia. 3.14 high consequence floodplain: A floodplain adja- cent to a waterway used in commercial navigation. 3.15 holiday: A discontinuity in the coating. 3.16 hydrocarbon pipeline: Pipelines used for the transportation of natural and other gases, hazardous liquids, carbon dioxide and alcohols. 3.17 hydrology: The science dealing with the properties, distribution and circulation of water on the surface of the land, in the soil and in the atmosphere. 3.18 jeep: A method of inspecting pipe surface coatings for holidays, also known as holiday detection. 3.19 matting: Installing wood planks, or other material in an effort to stabilize a work area or route of ingress/egress. 3.20 meanders: A channel pattern characterized by a series of pronounced alternating bends formed by stream pro- cesses.
4.1.3 Aerial Crossings Aerial crossings of floodplains and watercourses can be made by using existing host bridges or dedicated bridges, and self-supporting spans that are specially designed for the pipe- line crossing. The following should be considered in design of aerial crossings: • Pipe selection (internal pressure as well as span length and ballistic protection), • Atmospheric corrosion control (coatings and or insula- tion), • Stresses due to thermal conditions, • Isolation of cathodic protection, • External loads such as wind, snow, etc., • Clearance for water traffic. Physical security should be provided to prevent unautho- rized access and/or damage to the crossing. Host bridges can be the most economical method of aerial crossing of watercourses, although they are not often conve- niently located along the proposed route of a pipeline. The pri- mary design considerations for locating on a host bridge are: • The adequacy of the host bridge to support the addi- tional weight of the pipeline and its appurtenant sup- port system, • The design of the pipeline support system itself, and • The location of the pipeline on the host bridge so as to protect it from outside force damage. Installation on a host bridge requires compliance with the host bridge owner’s standards and design practices. The host bridge should be structurally analyzed to ensure the bridge is not overstressed as a result of the weight of the pipeline and its contents. • A dedicated bridge may be designed specifically for a pipeline crossing. Several different bridge designs are suitable for a pipeline crossing of a water course, including suspension, prefabricated steel, reinforced concrete, and self-spanning pipe. Aerial crossings should be designed by a qualified engineer experienced in bridge design. 4.2 CONSTRUCTION METHODS Construction methods will be influenced by many factors.

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