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API RP 14J-2001 pdf free download

API RP 14J-2001 pdf free download.Recommended Practice for Design and Hazards Analysis for Offshore Production Facilities.
2.2.3 Production Equipment Maintenance Production systems require maintenance for reliable opera- tion. Systems that are not properly maintained risk potential failure and possible hydrocarbon escape. It is recommended that a program for equipment maintenance be implemented. This program may establish maintenance schedules, taking into account the equipment manufacturer’s recommendations as well as periods of reduced or increased operational activity. Preventive maintenance techniques should be considered for rotating and other critical equipment. Maintenance checks should include investigation for internal and external corro- sion and erosion. Production systems should be designed to provide appropriate working space to service and maintain equipment, and allow for such other operations as cleaning sand or paraffin from vessels. Equipment and procedures should be designed with lock-out, tag-out features to prevent accidental release of fluids and to prevent injury to personnel. 2.2.4 Equipment Operation Proper operation of production equipment is essential to safety. Facilities should be designed to control normal opera- tions and automate those that require quick response. Operat- ing controls, and the sequence and logistics of operating steps, should be arranged for ease of operation. The operator should maintain standard procedures for the safe operation of common devices and pieces of equipment. Operating proce- dures should address concerns relating to facility start-ups, normal operations and shutdowns, and should cover the oper- ations of critical equipment, such as compressor purging, loading, unloading and blowdown. (“Critical equipment” is defined in RP 75.) 2.2.5 Special Precautions Exposure to potential damage from hydrocarbon contain- ing equipment and piping of routinely manned spaces, egress routes, and emergency response equipment should, as much as practical, be located away from equipment containing hydrocarbon and other hazardous materials.
2.3 PREVENTING HYDROCARBON IGNITION In the event of abnormal release of hydrocarbons from pro- duction equipment, the goal of safe facilities design is to pre- vent ignition. Abnormal hydrocarbon releases can be caused by erosion/corrosion leaks; failures of piping systems caused by vibration and mechanical damages; fugitive emission from flanges, fittings, valves, etc.; emergency relieving of pressure; and operator error. Hydrocarbons released from equipment can be ignited if exposed to high temperatures, flame, static electricity, or arcing electrical or instrumentation equipment. The intensity and size of a fire is determined by the volume and rate of liquid or gas that could be released. The speed and direction of a gas release as well as the flow rate of the release can substantially influence the ignitable concentration. Wind speed and direction should also be taken into account. Low wind speed reduces the dispersion of gas and extends the aerial limits over which combustion concen- tration is likely to occur. Gases should be analyzed to deter- mine whether they are heavier- or lighter-than-air under all operating conditions. Mixtures often contain both lighter- than-air and heavier-than-air components. For heavier-than- air gas releases, potentially ignitable concentrations are most likely found below the point of release. For lighter-than-air gases, there is greater potential for ignitable concentrations above the point of release. Gas releases can result in deflagra- tion and explosive situations which could damage other equipment due to overpressure and lead to the ignition of other flammable/combustible materials. Liquid leaks and spills will fall until they contact surfaces. Liquid can then spread very quickly to pose a threat to per- sonnel and facilities. Liquids should be channeled away to safe locations to avoid contacting ignition sources.
2.5.2 Fire-fighting and Other Emergency Equipment Fire-fighting equipment should be strategically located on the platform to provide for both fire-fighting and escape capabilities. The safety system should shut down all hydro- carbon sources so that personnel who are trained in fire fight- ing can begin fire-fighting operations immediately. Should the fire escalate, the fire-fighting equipment could be utilized to assist in the evacuation of personnel. Fire-fighting equip- ment should be inspected and tested functionally on a regular basis to provide confidence that it remains in proper operat- ing condition. Appropriate personnel, including contractor’s personnel, should be trained in the proper use of fire-fighting and other emergency equipment provided on the platform. Breathing apparatus should be provided on the platform, especially when production operations involve toxic gas. Stand-by light- ing systems may be desirable for certain offshore locations to illuminate escape routes during times of power failure. 2.5.3 Fire-fighting and Evacuation Procedures All personnel normally assigned to a facility should be familiar with its fire-fighting and evacuation procedures. All personnel should be trained to perform their specific duties in the event that fire-fighting and evacuation become necessary. Scenario drills should be conducted on a regular basis, and training should be provided for new personnel to acquaint them with the alarms, emergency equipment and fire-fighting and evacuation procedures. Manned production platforms should have a communication system to assist and direct per- sonnel in emergencies. The communication system should be designed to operate during an emergency. Immediately after arrival on the platform, personnel not normally assigned to a facility should be instructed to recognize alarms, told of the action required of them from each alarm, and made familiar with evacuation routes.

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