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API RP 19D-2021 pdf free download

API RP 19D-2021 pdf free download.Measuring Conductivity of Proppants.
1 Scope This standard provides recommended testing procedures for evaluating proppants used in hydraulic fracturing and gravel-packing operations. NOTE The “proppants” mentioned henceforth in this document refer to natural sand, ceramic media, resin-coated proppants, gravel packing media, and other materials used for hydraulic fracturing and gravel-packing operations. The objective of the document is to provide consistent methodology for testing procedures used to measure performance of hydraulic-fracturing or gravel-packing proppants, or both. The testing procedures in this document are not designed to provide values of proppant conductivity under downhole reservoir conditions. Long-term test data have shown that time, elevated temperatures, fracturing fuid residues, cyclic stress loading, embedment, formation fnes and other factors further reduce fracture proppant pack conductivity. Also, this reference test is designed to measure only the frictional energy losses corresponding to laminar fow within a pack. It is recognized that fuid velocity within an actual fracture can be signifcantly higher than in these laboratory tests and can be dominated by inertial efects. 2 Normative References The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced standard (including any amendments) applies. API Standard 19C, Measurement of and Specifcations for Proppants used in Hydraulic Fracturing and Gravel- packing Operations ISO 1 3506-1, Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless-steel fasteners — Part 1: Bolts, screws, and studs 3? Terms,? Defnitions,? Symbols,? and? Abbreviations 3.1? Terms? and? Defnitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and defnitions apply. 3.1.1 conductivity Width of the fracture multiplied by the permeability of the proppant pack 4.2 Discussion In this procedure, a closure stress shall be applied across a test cell for 50 h ±2 h to allow the proppant sample bed to reach a semi-steady state condition. As the fuid is forced through the proppant bed, the proppant pack width, diferential pressure, temperature, and fow rates are measured at each stress level. Proppant pack conductivity parameters and width are measured, and permeability is calculated. Multiple fow rates are used to verify the performance of the transducers, and to determine laminar (darcy) fow regime at each stress; an average of the data at these fow rates is reported. For highest data accuracy, a minimum pressure drop of 0.014 kPa (0.0020 lbf/in. 2 ) shall be used; otherwise, fow rates should be increased to achieve the minimum pressure drop. Alternatively, for smaller proppants with lower conductivities, measurements shall use a pressure transducer with larger pressure span, to increase accuracy in measurements of higher pressure drop but which will reduce accuracy at smaller pressure drop values. At stipulated fow rates and temperature conditions, no appreciable non-darcy fow or inertial efects are encountered. After completing the rates at a closure stress level in all cells, the closure stress is increased to a new level; 50 h ±2 h is allowed for the proppant bed to reach a semi-steady state condition, and multiple fow rates in all cells are introduced to gather data required to determine proppant pack conductivity at this stress level. The procedure is repeated until all desired closure stresses and fow rates have been evaluated. To achieve accurate conductivity measurements, it is essential that single-phase fow occurs. Test condition parameters, such as test fuid, temperature, loading, platen material and time, at each stress are reported along with conductivity and permeability data. Other conditions can be used to evaluate diferent characteristics of proppants and, therefore, can be expected to produce difering results.
5.2 Platen Material 5.2.1 Stone platens Sandstone or naturally occurring stone platens shall have dimensions of 176.80 mm to 177.80 mm (6.960 in. to 7.000 in.) in length, 37.70 mm to 38.10 mm (1.485 in. to 1.500 in.) wide, and a minimum of 8.10 mm (0.320 in.) thickness. The ends of the platen shall be rounded to ft into the test cell (see 6.1). Platen parallelism shall be maintained to ±0.03 mm (±0.001 in.) of platen length. The preferred sandstone platen material should comprise Buena Vista sandstone 2 from Scioto County, Ohio (USA). Any other rock material used for these measurements shall be documented, including the physical properties of the material and place of origin. Representative properties for Buena Vista sandstone are summarized in Table 1. NOTE Buena Vista sandstone is a homogeneous quartzose fne-grain rock.

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