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API RP 2001-2012 pdf free download

API RP 2001-2012 pdf free download.Fire Protection in Refineries.
3 Terms and Definitions For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply. Additional definitions and an expanded discussion of fire-related hydrocarbon properties and phenomena are included in Section 4 and Annex A. 3.1 clean agent Electrically nonconducting volatile or gaseous fire suppression agent approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as substitutes for chemicals judged by EPA to be ozone depleting and are being phased out under provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA); clean agents do not leave a residue upon evaporation. 3.2 combustible As defined by NFPA and used in this document, refers to any solid that can burn or to any liquid that has a flash point of 100 °F (37.8 °C) or greater. See NFPA 30 for subclassification of combustible liquids. 3.3 combustion (burning) The rapid reaction of oxidizable material with an oxidizer, usually oxygen from the air, followed by the development of heat. This reaction usually produces flames. 3.4 dry chemical agent A powder of very small particles (usually sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium phosphate) treated for proper flow capabilities and tailored for Class A (combustible), Class B (flammable), or Class C (electrical) fires (see NFPA 17 for specifics). 3.5 fire hazard analysis FHA A study used to evaluate fire hazards in a specific potential fire area and evaluate consequences of fire-related events. 3.6 flammable As defined by NFPA and used in this document, refers to any gas that can burn or to any liquid that has a flash point below 100 °F (37.8 °C). The archaic term inflammable is obsolete. See NFPA 30 for subclassification of flammable liquids.
3.8 fuel Material capable of undergoing combustion. It is the material that burns to feed a fire. 3.9 furnace “stuffing” A furnace or heater running in a fuel-rich condition. 3.10 hazard A situation or inherent chemical or physical property with the potential to do harm (flammability, oxygen deficiency, toxicity, corrosivity, and stored electrical, chemical, or mechanical energy). 3.11 management of change MOC A process to identify, evaluate, and address needs associated with changes in process technology, equipment. materials, or procedures other than “replacement in kind.” Some facilities apply MOC principles to personnel and organizations. 3.12 process The refinery equipment, vessels, and piping in which refining takes place to “process” crude oil to manufacture petroleum products. 3.13 pyrophoric The property of a material to self-heat and ignite in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. 3.14 risk The probability and consequences of exposure to a hazard, hazardous environment or situation that could result in harm. 3.15 risk assessment The identification and analysis, either qualitative or quantitative, of the likelihood and outcome of specific hazard exposure events or scenarios with judgments of probability and consequences. 3.16 risk-based analysis A review of potential needs based on a risk assessment. 3.17 switch loading Loading of low vapor pressure (high flash point) materials into containers where flammable vapors may be present from previous use, such as when diesel fuel is loaded into a tank truck or tank car that last carried a cargo of gasoline. (API 2003 provides additional information on the static ignition fire hazards associated with switch loading.)
4 Chemistry and Physics of Fire—Special Considerations 4.1 Chemistry and Physics of Fire The inherent hazards associated with processing, handling, and/or storage of petroleum products are partly due to the volatility of many of these products. If proper precautions are not followed to prevent the concurrent presence of these volatile components of combustion, there is the possibility of a fire or explosion. This could result in risk of harm to exposed personnel, damage to equipment, and adverse effects on the environment. Personnel involved in refinery fire protection should be familiar with the general combustion principles. Annex A provides more in-depth information on the properties and hazards of petroleum products and the chemistry and physics of fire. This resource can be useful for review or training. Fire prevention and protection measures available to deal with these hazards can be found in other sections of this publication and in cited references. 4.2 Special Situations, Considerations, and Hazards Certain inherent properties of hydrocarbon materials processed and produced in refineries present unique hazards related to hydrocarbon storage. Some of these phenomena (discussed in Annex A) have the potential to cause substantial damage. Some examples are: boilover, slopover, frothover, and boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE).

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