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API RP 2009-2002 pdf free download

API RP 2009-2002 pdf free download.Safe Welding, Cutting, and Hot Work Practices in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industries.
1.1 PURPOSE Gas and electric welding and cutting operations are impor- tant activities to support petroleum and petrochemical opera- tions. Personnel engaged in these operations should have a thorough understanding of the duties they are to perform and the potential hazards associated with the activity and materials involved. This recommended practice provides information to assist welding, cutting and other hot work activities to be done safely in petroleum and petrochemical operations. The under- standing of potential hazards, and application of this knowl- edge, can help reduce the probability and severity of incidents. 1.2 SCOPE This recommended practice provides guidelines for safely conducting welding, cutting or other hot work activities in reÞneries, gas plants, petrochemical plants and other facilities in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. It includes speciÞc guidance to evaluate procedures for certain types of work on equipment in service. Not included in the scope are: a. Guidance for compliance with regulations or codes. b. Hot tapping (it is the subject of API Recommended Prac- tice 2201 Procedures for Hot Tapping on Equipment in Service ). c. Welding techniques, craft skills or qualiÞcation of welders. d. Normal Òsafe workÓ practices such as fall protection, PPE, slip/trip/fall, etc. e. Entry or work in inert environments (see API 2217A). The principles and resources provided in this document are widely applicable. Some activities (such as oil drilling or off- shore operations) may be subject to speciÞc regulations or unique work requirements which should be considered when developing welding and hot work programs. While personnel doing welding and other hot work require a high degree of skill and shall be qualiÞed for the work they are doing, the qualiÞcation of personnel falls outside the scope of this document.
1.3 RETROACTIVITY Any provisions in this publication related to procedures or design are intended for new project reference such as revising procedures or designing new facilities, or when considering major revisions or expansions. It is not intended that any rec- ommendations in this publication be applied retroactively to existing facilities or evaluation of prior practice. This recom- mended practice should provide useful guidance when there is a desire or need to review programs or facilities. 1.4 CONCEPT OF HAZARD VS RISK Hazards are properties of materials with the inherent abil- ity to cause harm. Flammability, toxicity, corrosivity, and stored chemical or mechanical energy all are hazards associ- ated with various industrial materials. Risk requires exposure. A hot surface or material can cause thermal skin burns or a corrosive acid can cause chemical skin burns, but these can occur only if there is contact exposure to skin. There is no risk when there is no potential for exposure. Determining the level of risk involves understanding haz- ards and estimating the probability and severity of exposure that could lead to harm. While the preceding examples relate hazards to the risk to people, the same principles are valid for evaluating property risk. For instance, hydrocarbon vapors in a ßammable mixture with air can ignite if exposed to a source of ignition resulting in a Þre that could damage property.
3.9 hydrogen blister: Bulge in steel caused by high- pressure molecular hydrogen trapped at an internal ßaw within steel. 3.10 inerting: The process of eliminating the potential for a ßammable atmosphere by using an inert gas such as nitro- gen, carbon dioxide or steam (water vapor) to displace oxy- gen required for ignition. 3.11 lower flammable limit (LFL): The concentration of a vapor in air (or other oxidant) below which propagation of ßame does not occur on contact with an ignition source. The lower ßammable limit is usually expressed as a volume percentage of the vapor in air. Sometimes called Lower Explosive Limit (LEL). 3.12 permissible exposure limits (PELs): Federal regulations set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, and found at 29 Code of Federal Regulations 1910.1000 and in the substance- speciÞc standards which follow.

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