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API RP 2016-2001 pdf free download

API RP 2016-2001 pdf free download.Guidelines and Procedures for Entering and Cleaning Petroleum Storage Tanks.
1. Internal tank configuration with inwardly converging walls or floors that slope downward, tapering to smaller cross-sections, that could trap or asphyxiate workers. 2. Tripping, falling and bumping hazards from the inter- nal structural components of a tank. 3. Sharp metal edges, welds, etc. within the tank that can snag clothing or skin and tangle or cut hoses and retrieval lines. 4. Corroded roofs, decks, scaffolds and stairways that are unsafe to walk or work on or under. 5. Continuing to work in and around a tank during condi- tions that cause the permit to be cancelled, including, but not limited to, increased exposures over the permit limits, lightning storms, emergencies, environmental extremes and receipt of product into nearby tanks. 6. Use of lighting, such as ordinary household-type lights and non-explosion proof flashlights, that fail to meet Zone 1 or Class I, Division 1, Group D, or higher (depending upon the type of product in the tank) electrical classifica- tion requirements. 7. Structural failure of the tank shell, internal or external roof, roof support members, swing line cables, braces, pontoons or other tank members. 8. Falls from elevations such as roofs, scaffolds, decks, wind girders, stairs, and ladders. 9. Accidental discharge of steam, high pressure air, water or oil, either into the tank or against workers inside or out- side the tank. 10. Tools or other objects dropped from overhead. 11. Tripping over hoses, pipes, tools, or tank cleaning equipment inside and outside the tank. 12. Slipping on wet or oily surfaces. 13. Tripping over or colliding with objects in poorly lit or inadequately lighted work areas 14. Working and walking on an internal floating roof. 15. Failure to wear required respiratory protection and personal protective equipment. 16. Improper, insufficient, faulty, or contaminated per- sonal protective equipment and clothing.
4.6.2 Safety Precautions The entry supervisor or qualified person shall determine and evaluate the potential physical and other hazards and indicate the necessary precautions and control measures required by entrants and workers on the entry permit. Tank cleaning supervisors, testers, entrants, attendants and tank cleaning workers shall be adequately trained, educated, expe- rienced or skilled to recognize the potential physical hazards associated with tank cleaning operations. Owners/operators shall be responsible for the issuance of work and entry per- mits for their employees and employees of contractors (other than the tank cleaning contractor and its sub-contractors) working in and around the tank cleaning area. The tank clean- ing contractor shall designate permit issuers to be responsible for issuance of work and entry permits for their own contrac- tor and subcontractor employees. 5 Vapor and Gas Freeing, Degassing, and Ventilating Tanks 5.1 GENERAL Vapor and gas freeing usually involves the removal of flammable and/or toxic vapors and gases from a tank’s atmo- sphere by mechanical or natural displacement and dilution with fresh air. Vapor and gas freeing may also be accom- plished by purging the tank with inert gas, flue gas or steam or displacing the vapor or gas with water or fuel oil. Vapors and gas may be discharged direct to the atmosphere, or degassed by discharge through a vapor treating or recovery system. Degassing removes toxic gases and volatile organic vapors prior to emission to the atmosphere by the use of vapor recovery and treatment methods such as refrigeration, thermal oxidation or carbon absorption. Note: See Section 7.3.8 for vapor freeing spaces in tanks such as pontoons, columns, double bottoms, etc.

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