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API RP 2021-2001 pdf free download

API RP 2021-2001 pdf free download.Management of Atmospheric Storage Tank Fires.
1 General 1.1 PURPOSE This recommended practice provides experience-based information to enhance the understanding of fires in atmo- spheric storage tanks containing flammable and combustible materials. It presents a systematic management approach which can assist tank fire prevention. If fires do occur, this information can help responders optimize fire suppression techniques to reduce the severity of an incident and reduce the potential for escalation. 1.1.1 Retroactivity Any provisions in this recommended practice related to design are intended for reference use when designing new facilities or when considering major revisions or expansions. It is not intended that the recommendations in this publication be applied retroactively to existing facilities. This publication should provide useful guidance when there is a need or desire to review programs or facilities. 1.2 SCOPE This recommended practice provides information to assist management and fire suppression personnel to manage the needs associated with safely fighting fires in above ground atmospheric storage tanks. The discussion includes planning, preparation, suppression, investigation and follow-up activi- ties as shown in Figure 1. If a liquid at a petroleum facility can burn and is stored in an unheated tank at atmospheric pressure, it fits the scope of this publication. Fires can be fueled by flammable or combus- tible liquids ranging from gasoline to lube oil, asphalt or crude oil. Some chemicals used in the petroleum industry fit 2510A) and nonmetallic tanks. Detailed discussion of types of fire protection equipment and maintenance are also outside the scope of this publication. They are covered in publications such as API Publ 2001, NFPA 11, NFPA 30 and the NFPA Fire Protection Handbook ; further references are noted in Section 2. There may be situations in which it may not be possible, or appropriate, to mount an aggressive attack to extinguish a fire (as noted in 6.6). In most cases, if sufficient resources
3 Definitions Terms especially relevant to tank fire suppression are defined in 3.1 through 3.42. Definition of terms which are in general use in the petroleum industry are found in Appendix A. 3.1 advanced exterior fire fighting: As defined in NFPA 600 is “offensive fire fighting performed outside an enclosed structure when the fire is beyond the incipient stage” which “often requires fire brigade members to contain, con- trol, and extinguish exterior fires involving site-specific haz- ards such as flammable and combustible liquid spills”. Water-Based Fire Protection Systems 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 58 LP-Gas Code 77 Static Electricity 291 Fire Flow Testing and Marking of Hydrants 3.2 aqueous-film-forming foam (AFFF) concen- trates: Based on fluorinated surfactants plus foam stabiliz- ers. The foam formed acts as a barrier to exclude air or oxygen and develops an aqueous film on some fuel surfaces that suppresses the evolution of fuel vapors (see Appendix H). 325 600 704 Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases, and Volatile Solids Industrial Fire Brigades Identi fi cation of Hazards of Materials for 3.3 alcohol resistant foam concentrates: Specifi- cally designed to be effective on fires involving liquid fuels, such as polar solvents, which can cause some foams to be ineffective. Emergency Response 2 American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, New York 10018. www.ansi.org 3 American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103. www.astm.org 4 U.S. Bureau of Mines [part of NIOSH/CDC], Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 18070, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236. www.cdc.gov/niosh/pit/welcome.html 3.4 base injection: An alternate term for sub-surface injection. 3.5 class of a fire: Determined by what type of fuel is involved in the fire. Class A fires involve ordinary combusti- bles such as wood, cloth, paper, and rubber. Class B fires involve flammable or combustible liquids and

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