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API RP 2023-2001 pdf free download

API RP 2023-2001 pdf free download.Guide for Safe Storage and Handling of Heated Petroleum- Derived Asphalt Products and Crude-Oil Residua
3.25 IDLH: The NIOSH traditional definition is the maxi- mum concentration of an air contaminant from which one could escape within 30 minutes without a respirator and with- out experiencing any escape-impairing or irreversible health effects. 3.26 natural asphalt: Naturally occurring petroleum materials which posses physical characteristics similar to asphalt derived by processing crude oil. Found in nature as lake (pit) or rock asphalt. 3.27 particulate: Inhalable materials considered by ACGIH to be hazardous when deposited anywhere in the res- piratory tract (see Appendix J). 3.28 penetration: The penetration (hardness) test mea- sures the distance in units of 1 ⁄ 10 millimeter that a weighted standard blunt needle of a penetrometer will penetrate an asphalt cement sample at a prescribed temperature (usually 100 g at 77°F) in 5 seconds. 3.29 petroleum asphalt: Asphalt obtained by refining petroleum crude oil. 3.30 PCA: A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (frequently used synonymously with PNA). 3.31 petroleum pitch: A product of petroleum process- ing (frequently used as a refinery intermediate). 3.32 PNA: A polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (fre- quently used synonymously with PCA). 3.33 pyrophoric: Iron sulfide or carbonaceous materials which, when exposed to air, can oxidize and heat, providing a source of ignition if a flammable vapor/air mixture is present. 3.34 residual fuels: Fuels based on residual components of crude oil, sometimes blended with lighter hydrocarbon to achieve an appropriate fuel viscosity. These fuels normally require special pre-heating burners and suitable handling and storage facilities (see bunker fuels)
4.3.3 FUMES AND VAPORS Inhalation exposure to vapors and fumes from heated asphalt can have effects occurring from exposure over a short time, such as irritation of the eyes or respiratory system. “Cut- back” asphalt or residual fuel blended with lighter distillate hydrocarbons may release vapors from the distillate hydrocar- bon component which can cause irritation, light-headedness or headaches. All of these short-term exposure effects are consid- ered reversible when removed from exposure. Threshold Limit Values and Permissible Exposure Limits are intended to address longer term repeated exposure. The 2000 edition of the ACGIH ® publication TLVs ® and BEIs ® — Threshold Limit Values For Chemical Substances and Phys- ical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices —lists “Asphalt (Petroleum; Bitumen) Fume” with a TLV of 0.5 mg/m 3 . This is a tenfold reduction from the previous TLV of 5.0 mg/m 3 . ACGIH indicate that this new limit is based on “irritation” (primarily of mucous membrane in eyes and respiratory tract). There is no OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for asphalt fume. OSHA has stated specifically that limits for coal tar pitch volatiles ( CFR 29 1910.1002) do not apply to asphalt from any source. Good industrial hygiene practice will edu- cate employees in the importance of avoiding exposure to fumes and provide protective equipment where appropriate. Appendix J discusses the TLV and PELs along with other health studies. 4.4 POTENTIAL CHRONIC HEALTH HAZARDS & RISK REDUCTION Chronic health hazards require repeated or extended expo- sure and may not evidence effects for a long time after expo- sure. Hydrogen sulfide is not a chronic health hazard. Materials for which repeated or prolonged exposure are of interest when working around asphalt and heavy hydrocarbon residual materials are discussed in the following section.

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