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API RP 2217A-2017 pdf free download

API RP 2217A-2017 pdf free download.Safe Work in Inert Confined Spaces in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industries.
1 Scope and Special Considerations 1.1 Scope This Recommended Practice provides guidance for safely entering and working within and near confined spaces that have inert atmospheres. API 2217A applies to confined spaces that have been intentionally purged with an inert gas until: — the oxygen level in the vapor space is too low to support combustion, and — any gases in or at the point of discharge from the confined space are deficient in oxygen such that the mixture is not flammable. Typical inert entry work in the petroleum and petrochemical industry includes, but is not limited to work to service or replace catalyst in reactors and work in confined spaces where the flammable or toxic atmosphere cannot be removed or made safe by another method (such as atmospheric ventilation). 1.2 Special Considerations For conformance with this Recommended Practice, the target set for initiation of inert entry is no more than 50 % of minimum oxygen level (O 2 ) for combustion with a maximum total of 4 % O 2 in the inert space. Conformance with this criteria will limit the lower flammable limit (LFL) to below 10 %. If the oxygen level increases to 5 % after entry, the workers shall be removed from the inerted space. Because of these low oxygen levels, special considerations are necessary for entry into confined spaces with inert atmospheres. These require additional safe work practices that supplement (not replace) established regulatory requirements (as exemplified in the United States by the OSHA permit-required confined spaces (PRCS) and personal protective equipment (PPE) standards.)
Inert confined spaces are, by definition, always permit-required confined spaces (PRCS). However, while inert atmospheres in confined spaces are indeed “immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH),” the hazard is much more severe and immediate than the often used “30-minute escape” criteria. The sense of smell cannot detect either oxygen or nitrogen, so without instruments, there are no warning properties. Total loss of respiratory protection in an inert atmosphere can cause immediate incapacitation and result in rapid asphyxiation. Unprotected exposure to these hazards results in impairment of the ability to escape unaided (self- rescue) and the risk of death. Because of this severity, stringent requirements are placed on respiratory protection (triple-redundant air supply using approved equipment.) Special precautions are needed to prevent entry and potential asphyxiation of personnel attempting rescue without proper training, qualifications and equipment. The fundamental exposure protection and management concepts presented herein are applicable to most situations that involve inert atmospheres in confined spaces in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. The specific work areas of greatest concern are the inert confined space itself and the areas at or near the entrance to, or exhaust from, the inerted space. In the refining and petrochemical industries, planned inert entry work activities often relate to catalytic reactor servicing. Where deliberate entry is made into other intentionally inerted confined spaces, such as tanks, large diameter pipes, or in maritime service, the same principles as required for permit-required confined spaces are applicable (with hazard evaluations and adjustments as required for specific conditions and activities). 2 Normative References The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document
API Standard 2015, Safe Entry and Cleaning of Petroleum Storage Tanks API Recommended Practice 2016, Guidelines and Procedures for Entering and Cleaning Petroleum Storage Tanks API Standard 2220, Contractor Safety Performance Process API Recommended Practice 2221, Contractor and Owner Safety Program Implementation ANSI 1 /AIHA 2 Z88.2, Practices for Respiratory Protection ANSI/ASSE 3 Z117.1, Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces ANSI/ASSE Z244, Control of Hazardous Energy-Lockout/Tagout and Alternative Methods ANSI/ACC 4 Z400.1, Hazardous Industrial Chemicals-Material Safety Data Sheets-Preparation CGA 5 G7, Compressed Air for Human Respiration CGA Safety Alert SA-16, Safety Alert-Blended Breathing Air Fatalities

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