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API RP 2219-2016 pdf free download

API RP 2219-2016 pdf free download.Safe Operation of Vacuum Trucks Handling Flammable and Combustible Liquids in Petroleum Service.
1.4 Concept of Hazard vs Risk Hazards are conditions or properties of materials with the inherent ability to cause harm. Risk involves the potential for exposure to hazards that will result in harm or damage. For example, a hot surface or material can cause thermal skin burns or a corrosive acid can cause chemical skin burns, but these injuries can occur only if there is contact exposure to skin. A person working at an elevated height has “stored energy” and a fall from a height can cause injury, but there is no risk unless a person is working at heights and is thus exposed to the hazard. There is no risk when there is no potential for exposure. Determining the level of risk for any activity involves understanding hazards and estimating the probability and severity of exposure that could lead to harm or damage. The preceding examples relate the consequences of hazard exposure, severity, and probability to determine risks to people. The same principles can be applied to property risk. For instance, hydrocarbon vapors in a flammable mixture with air can ignite if exposed to a source of ignition resulting in a fire that could damage property as well as cause injury. The U.S. Department of Transportation and the United Nations provide specific definitions and classifications for “Hazardous Materials”. These more general performance-based concepts are significant in order to understand the potential risk associated with vacuum truck operations. 1.5 Job Hazard Analysis Those in charge of vacuum truck operations can implement the principles of Hazard vs Risk by conducting a job safety analysis (JSA) to assess hazards and risks associated with specific tasks. This review helps identify hazards so that protective equipment, procedures, and contingency plans can be put in place to mitigate risks associated with identified hazards.
3.2 bonding Providing electrical connections between isolated conductive parts of a system to equalize their electrical potential (voltage). A resistance less than 1 megohm [<1 ×1 0 6 ohm] is traditionally considered adequate for static dissipation. The targeted goal for bonding should be 0 ohm. For stray current protection, lightning protection, and other electrical systems, the bonding resistance needs to be significantly lower, no more than about 1 0 ohms. 3.3 BS&W An abbreviation for “basic sediment and water”, measured as a volume percentage from a liquid sample of the production stream. It includes free water, sediment, and emulsion. BS&W may entrain flammable or combustible hydrocarbons or oily emulsions and then may release those hydrocarbons during service handling. 3.4 CHEMTREC An acronym for “CHEMical TRansportation Emergency Center”, a system organized and coordinated by the American Chemistry Council to provide chemical-specific information to emergency responders around the clock. 3.5 cyclone separators Devices that separate oil and water or solid materials from air by cyclone action. 3.6 exposure limit The maximum concentration limits for toxic substances to which workers may be safely exposed for a prescribed time without protection (e.g. respiratory protection). Exposure limits are usually expressed in parts per million (volume) or milligrams per cubic meter, averaged for a prescribed time, e.g. 1 5 minutes, 8 hours. They may also be expressed as ceiling limits, which should not be exceeded. Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) available from employers, manufacturers, or suppliers of the material should identify recommended exposure limits. Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) and Short-Term Exposure Limits (STELs) are regulatory exposure limits established in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor regulations and are those found in the most current editions of OSHA 29 CFR 1 91 0.1 000 and chemical specific standards.

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