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API RP 51R-2009 pdf free download

API RP 51R-2009 pdf free download.Environmental Protection for Onshore Oil and Gas Production Operations and Leases.
5.2.2 Standards should be established for the road based on its short-term and long-term function considering geography, traffic density, and load expectations. 5.2.3 Alternative alignments should be developed considering the following parameters as appropriate: a) topography; b) hydrology, drainage, and watercourses, whether intermittent or permanent; c) engineering properties of soils, erodible soils; d) location and amounts of excavation and fill materials; e) type and location of materials for road construction; f) air, water, and noise pollution; g) wetlands and wetland drainage; h) consistency with community character and local government needs and plans; i) proximity to dwellings or other permanent structures occupied or used by the public; j) visual sensitivity; k) power lines and pipelines; l) other geotechnical factors, particularly in areas of complex terrain, such as landslide areas, subgrade conditions indicating a need for surfacing, potential cut slope problems, and subsurface or surface water problem areas. 5.2.4 Road alignments and potential environmental impacts should be reviewed. Routes and alignment should be selected to minimize erosion. Environmentally significant areas should be identified and avoided to the maximum extent practical, including: a) sensitive wildlife and critical habitats; b) areas with endangered and threatened animals and plants; c) cultural and historical sites; d) federal, state, or local areas of concern; e) areas with the potential for flooding or snow drifting; f) wetlands. 5.2.5 When required, mitigation strategies should be developed in the planning process, including: a) road operation schedules and/or use of special designs to minimize any adverse impacts in areas with sensitive wildlife and fish habitats, wetlands, existing facilities, crops;
b) plans to take appropriate action on cultural and historic resources before changes are made; c) maintenance of existing traffic patterns on highways and local access roads. 5.2.6 Interim reclamation plans and final restoration plans should be developed and incorporated into the planning process. 5.2.7 Stormwater and air (dust) permit requirements should be considered during the planning phase of the roadway. 5.3 Design and Construction 5.3.1 The design and construction of a road should be site-specific. Each road will have its own unique terrain, safety, operation, and maintenance requirements. Each area within a route will support a distinct ecology. When site conditions are appropriate, where suitable for the types of drilling or production operations anticipated, and where compatible with safety and operational concerns, primitive roads may be considered for use as a means to reduce resource impacts. 5.3.2 Design and construction documents, including plans and drawings, should be prepared during the planning and design phases before the construction of the project. Plans will enable proper and timely review of items of environmental concern. They will also be beneficial for later restoration work. 5.3.3 Construction work should be scheduled and the use of special designs and local construction practices should be considered to minimize or avoid undesirable effects on sensitive wildlife and fish habitats, wetlands, and designated federal, state, or local recreational areas. Seasonal restrictions such as freeze-thaw cycles, potential flooding, and wildlife migration should be considered.
5.3.4 The operator should confirm that the construction contractor has implemented an environmental and safety program, including the training of construction personnel. This program should include, where applicable, written procedures for a hazard communication program, hazardous material handling, spill reporting, emergency response, stormwater management, special environmental requirements within the project area, and blasting. The contractor should supply material safety datasheets (MSDSs) for all hazardous materials brought on site. Regulatory agencies often require performance bonds when roads are to be constructed in environmentally sensitive areas. 5.3.5 The operator should hold a preconstruction meeting with the contractor(s) to establish environmental and safety responsibilities along with desired objectives of the project. 5.3.6 Field inspections and lab analysis of soil samples may be used to assess soil erosion hazards and slope stability. Properties of soils, length and gradient of slopes, and vegetative cover contribute to soil stability. Fitting the profile to topography, locating roads on moderate slopes, providing adequate drainage, and stabilizing slopes decreases surface disturbance and reduces erosion and sedimentation. 5.3.7 Means and methods for erosion control are numerous and often site-specific. Revegetation with local species, rip-rap, gabions, woven jute, and energy dissipators are effective measures that may be used to reduce erosion. 5.3.8 The use of geotextiles and geosynthetics should be considered in road planning and construction. These materials offer a variety of applications, aid in stabilizing the road, and minimize the utilization of road bed and surface materials. 5.3.9 An adequate drainage system should be incorporated into the design and construction of the road. This system should efficiently intercept, collect, remove, and discharge water from roads.

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