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API RP 5L1-2015 pdf free download

API RP 5L1-2015 pdf free download.Recommended Practice for Railroad Transportation of Line Pipe.
4.5 Pipe with Filler Metal Weld Seams Pipe with filler metal weld seams (SAW and GMAW) shall be positioned or padded in such a manner that the weld does not contact either the blocking or the adjacent pipe. When horizontal stripping is used for straight filler metal weld seam pipe (SAW and GMAW), the weld seam shall be positioned at 45°, ± 5°, from vertical. Pipe with a straight filler metal weld seam (SAW and GMAW) shall be positioned with the seam at 0 ° or 1 80 ° (in other words, 12 or 6 o’clock position) when nested, in order to prevent pipe-to-weld seam contact. Furthermore, weld seams should be oriented to avoid contact with steel banding straps. 4.6 End Protection (Gondolas) If any of the pipe ends are closer than 5 ft (1 .5 m) to the end of the car, a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm) nominal thickness rough lumber, or its equivalent, shall be securely attached to the end of the car to prevent the pipe ends from contacting the end gates. Permanently wood-lined end gates are considered suitable for end protection. At the time of loading, a minimum clearance of 1 ft (0.3 m) shall be provided between the end gates and each end of the pipe to facilitate handling. 4.7 Banding and Tying-down Emphasis should be placed on minimizing load shifting and subsequent damage to the pipe by unitizing the entire load, or specific portions thereof, with steel bands of at least 1 in. (25 mm) width. The bands should be properly spaced, of sufficient number, and properly tensioned to reduce the tendency of the pipe to move separately from the unitized load itself. While tie-down bands may be advantageous for some loads, rail handling or humping may loosen or break tie-down bands. Where flat tie-down bands are used, they shall have a minimum width of 1 in. (25 mm). Where wire rope or chains are used, adequate padding shall be used at points of contact with pipe.
4.8 Inspection 4.8.1 General The purchaser’s inspector shall have access to loading and unloading facilities with reasonable advance notice of loading and unloading. 4.8.2 Loading Damaged pipe shall not be loaded on board. If damaged pipe is detected on board, it should be noted on the bill of lading and the pipe marked by the carrier to indicate pre transit damage. 4.8.3 Unloading Pipe damage detected during transit or unloading should be promptly reported to the carrier and/or manufacturer and appropriately marked and set aside for further inspection.
5 Transit Fatigue 5.1 General Transit fatigue has been reported in pipe with diameter-to-thickness ratios as low as 1 2.5 and, even though transit fatigue does not appear to be grade related, it has been reported on pipe in Grades B through X70 [1] . Cracks have been found at three general locations: a) along the edge of submerged arc welds, b) in the pipe base metal at areas of denting or abrasion, and c) at the pipe ends. The variables that influence transit fatigue include the magnitude of the static stress, the number and magnitude of the cyclic stresses, the size of the contact area, the nature of the bearing surface, the degree of surface damage, and the ambient environment. Transit fatigue is prevented by assuring that the static and dynamic stresses are below the fatigue limit of the pipe. However, contact with hard surfaces, such as rivet heads, nails, bolts or other debris, steel stanchions, wire cables, and so forth, can lead to transit fatigue even when stresses are properly controlled. Corrosive atmospheres, such as might be encountered in humid coastal or industrial areas, can accelerate fatigue damage. Transit fatigue generally causes multiple cracks emanating from the area of surface contact. A distinctive feature of transit fatigue is that cracks will usually be found at both the inside and outside surfaces.

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