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API RP 99-2014 pdf free download

API RP 99-2014 pdf free download.Flash Fire Risk Assessment for the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry.
5.3 Flash Fire Risk Assessment Worksheets and Coversheet Annex C provides a 1-page overview/checklist for conducting a risk assessment. This document would be an appropriate format to use as a cover page for a series of assessments. The employer can use Annex D or other techniques to illustrate the adequacy of the “defense barriers.” 5.4 Illustrated Risk Assessment for Oil and Gas Operations As examples, the Flash Fire Risk Assessment Coversheet and Worksheets have been filled out in Annex E to show scenarios that can be encountered. 6 Mitigation 6.1 Layers of Protection Safe operations are the result of layers of protection or safeguards. These layers of protection are put in place to prevent an incident from occurring or mitigate the consequences of an event. Protective layers shall be maintained to ensure effectiveness. Stronger and more numerous independent protection layers will lessen the likelihood that an event will occur or result in harm. Flash fire injuries result from a failure of several protection layers. Flammable vapor must be present at concentrations at or above the LEL, which results from the failure of safeguards designed to ensure containment within equipment and piping, and there must also be an ignition source. Safe work practices, LEL monitoring, electrical area classification, etc. are layers of protection intended to prevent ignition sources while flammable vapor is present. Personnel would need to be present at the location of the fire for an injury to occur. Site control and proximity exclusion prevent exposure. In the event other protective measures fail, garment selection and PPE offers a final layer of protection intended to lessen injury severity. 6.2 Hierarchy of Controls The selection of controls for mitigating hazards identified during a risk assessment should be based upon the hierarchy of controls. The traditional hierarchy of controls is illustrated in Figure 2.
Administrative controls and PPE are frequently used with existing processes where hazards are not mitigated with other controls. These methods for protecting workers have also proven to be less effective than other measures, requiring significant effort by the affected workers and supervisors. PPE and administrative controls shall be implemented and enforced. Employees shall be trained on implementation and purpose of each control that directly affects the employee. If conditions at the site change that would affect the hazard/risk assessment, then the hazard/risk assessment shall be reviewed and updated to address the changes. 6.3 FRC Selection Based on Risk Assessment If a risk assessment identifies the risk of a flash fire, the employer shall take appropriate steps to mitigate the risk to employees including the use of engineering controls or administrative controls. If the risk of flash fire is not mitigated, FRC can be required to safely perform a task. FRC can minimize the severity of an injury but does not provide complete protection from a flash fire. The FRC use decision tree (see Annex F) is designed to be used in determining when FRC should be worn by utilizing a flow charting method. When using this flow chart, the user works through a series of decision boxes to determine the FRC needs based on knowledge of the operation and the hazard. This method minimizes the amount of time that is required to perform a hazard assessment; however, it can increase the activities covered by the use of FRC since it reduces the amount of information needed to make the decision. FRC should be worn by personnel working in areas where the risk assessment indicates that the work increases the probability of loss of containment of these materials. a) Processes involving NFPA Hazard Level 4 (flammable gases) where flammable vapors will be present only if loss of containment occurs.

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