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API St 976-2018 pdf free download

API St 976-2018 pdf free download.Refractory Installation Quality Control— Inspection and Testing of AES/RCF Fiber Linings and Materials.
3 Terms and Definitions For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply. 3.1 alkaline earth silicate fiber (AES) Manmade vitreous fiber (MMVF) composed of at least 18 % alkali earth oxides developed to meet the fiber exemption requirements spelled out in 97/69/EC of the Dangerous Substances Initiative in the European Union (EU). These fibers are exonerated from the EU carcinogen classification on the basis of their low bio- persistence. They also may be known as bio-fiber, bio-soluble, or low bio-persistence fiber. 3.2 anchor 4 Metallic or refractory device that holds the refractory or insulation in place. 3.3 ash 4 The noncombustible residue that remains after burning a fuel or other combustible material. This residue is considered to be a foulant that can foul the exterior of heater tubes. NOTE Ash may be corrosive to steel or the refractory lining, depending on the composition and metals content of the fuel. 3.4 batten strip A single or folded layer of fiber blanket placed and compressed between courses of fiber modules. 3.5 casing 4 Metal plate used to enclose the fired heater. 3.6 ceramic fiber Fibrous refractory insulation that can be in the form of refractory ceramic fiber or manmade vitreous fiber (MMVF). NOTE Applicable forms include bulk, blanket, board, modules, paper, coatings, pumpables, cements, moldables, and vacuum-formed shapes. 3.7 classification temperature The temperature at which MMVF has a linear shrinkage (measured as per ASTM C892) not exceeding 4 % (for blanket, paper) and 2 % (for vacuum form, boards) after 24-hour heat treatment and in a neutral (not oxidizing or reducing) atmosphere. NOTE In the field, the continuous application temperature is typically 167 °C (300 °F) below the classification temperature. Above that temperature, crystallization can occur and shrinkage increases. Polycrystalline PCW fiber can generally be used at up to classification temperature.
3.28 module 4 Construction of fibrous refractory insulation in stacked/folded blankets or monolithic form, commonly with an integrated attachment system. 3.29 mineral wool block 4 Block insulation composed of mineral wool fiber and an organic binder. 3.30 multicomponent lining 5 Refractory system consisting of two or more layers of different refractory types. NOTE Examples of refractory types are castable, insulating firebrick, firebrick, block, board, and ceramic fiber. 3.31 multilayer lining Refractory system consisting of two or more layers of the same refractory type. 3.32 needled 5 A knitted structure of fibers to enhance handling and mechanical strength. 3.33 owner 5 The proprietor of the lined equipment who has engaged one or more parties to install or repair refractory. 3.34 parquet 4 A module lining design where module support anchoring is aligned perpendicular for each adjacent module (see Figure 5). 3.35 permanent linear change 5 A measure of a refractory’s physical property that defines the change in dimensions as a result of initial heating to a specific temperature. 3.36 Polycrystalline Wool (PCW) Fiber Fibers containing greater than 70 wt % Al 2 O 3 that are produced by a “sol-gel method” from aqueous spinning solutions. NOTE Generally used at application temperatures greater than 1426 °C (2600 °F) or in critical chemical and physical application conditions. 3.37 protective coating 4 Corrosion-resistant material applied to a metal surface. EXAMPLE Coating on casing plates behind porous refractory materials to protect against sulfur in flue gases.
3.40 Refractory Ceramic Fibers (RCF) 4 MMVF whose chemical constituents are predominantly alumina and silica. 3.41 rigidizer 4 A liquid applied to AES/RCF that produces a rigid lining surface when dried. 3.42 shot Un-fiberized, sphere-shaped material in MMVF fibers that does not contribute to the insulating capability of fibrous insulation. 3.43 soldier course 4 A module lining design where module support anchoring is aligned (parallel) similarly for all modules in a row (see Figure 5). 3.44 sprayable/pumpable fibers 4 Mixture of bulk fiber and wet binder suitable for pumping or spraying. 3.45 staples Anchor hooks to secure the batten strip to the module (mandatory in arches) 3.46 supplier (refractory) 5 The party supplying the refractory and other materials to the contractor. NOTE The supplier may (or may not) be the manufacturer. 3.47 thermal resistance 4 Ability of insulation to resist heat flow from the hot face to the cold face. A wide range of thermal resistance is possible by selecting refractories with different thermal conductivities and/or lining thicknesses. 3.48 vacuum formed A manufacturing process combining fibers and binder components and using a vacuum to form a rigid, densified shape when dried. 3.49 vapor barrier 4 Metallic foil placed between layers of refractory as a barrier to flue gas flow. This barrier protects the steel shell from corrosion caused by condensing acids.

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