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API STD 560-2001 pdf free download

API STD 560-2001 pdf free download.Fired Heaters for General Refinery Service.
1 General 1.1 SCOPE 1.1.1 This standard covers the minimum requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, inspection, testing, prepara- tion for shipment, and erection of fired heaters, air preheaters, fans and burners for general refinery service. 1.1.2 A fired heater is an exchanger that transfers heat from the combustion of fuel to fluids contained in tubular coils within an internally insulated enclosure. Note: A bullet ( • ) at the beginning of a paragraph indicates that a decision by the purchaser is required. These decisions should be indicated on the data sheets (see Appendix A) or stated in the inquiry or purchase order. Decisions should be indicated on the checklist (see Appendix B). 1.2 ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS The vendor may offer alternative designs in addition to the base design when permitted by the inquiry. Any variance with this standard or the purchaser’s specification shall be clearly indicated in the proposal. 1.3 CONFLICTING REQUIREMENTS 1.3.1 In case of conflict between this standard and the pur- chase documents, the inquiry or order shall govern. 1.3.2 In the absence of a specified order of precedence, the vendor shall obtain written approval from the purchaser before proceeding with the work. 1.4 DEFINITION OF TERMS 1.4.1 air heater or air preheater: A heat transfer appa- ratus through which combustion air is passed and heated by a medium of higher temperature, such as the products of com- bustion, steam, or other fluid. direct air preheater: An exchanger which trans- fers heat directly between the flue gas and the combustion air. A regenerative air preheater uses heated rotating elements and a recuperative design uses stationary tubes, plates, or cast iron elements to separate the two heating media. indirect-type air preheater: A fluid-to-air heat transfer device. The heat transfer can be accomplished by using a heat transfer fluid, process stream or utility stream which has been heated by the flue gas or other means.
1.4.2 arch: A flat or sloped portion of the heater radiant section opposite the floor. 1.4.3 atomizer: A device used to reduce a liquid fuel oil to fine mist. Atomization may be achieved by steam, air or mechanical means. 1.4.4 anchor or tieback: A metallic or refractory device that retains the refractory or insulation in place. 1.4.5 backup layer: Any refractory layer behind the hot face layer. 1.4.6 balanced draft heater: Uses induced draft fan to remove the flue gas and a forced draft fan to supply combus- tion air. 1.4.7 breeching: The heater section where flue gases are collected after the last convection coil for transmission to the stack or the outlet ductwork. 1.4.8 bridgewall, division or gravity wall: A wall sep- arating two adjacent heater zones. 1.4.9 bridgewall temperature: The flue gas tempera- ture leaving the radiant section. 1.4.10 burner: Introduces fuel and air into a heater at the desired velocities, turbulence, and concentration to establish and maintain proper ignition and combustion. Burners are classified by the types of fuel fired, such as: oil, gas, or com- bination of gas and oil and may be designated as “dual fuel” or “combination.” 1.4.11 casing: The metal plate used to enclose the fired heater. 1.4.12 castable: An insulating concrete poured or gunned in place to form a rigid refractory shape or structure. 1.4.13 ceramic fiber: A fibrous refractory insulation composed primarily of silica and alumina. Applicable forms include blanket, board, module, rigidized blanket, and vac- uum-formed shapes. 1.4.14 coil pressure drop: The difference between the coil inlet pressure and the coil outlet pressure between termi- nals, excluding the effect of static head. 1.4.15 convection section: The portion of the heater in which the heat is transferred to the tubes primarily by convection.

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