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API TR 1154-2-2016 pdf free download

API TR 1154-2-2016 pdf free download.Sunken Oil Detection and Recovery Operational Guide.
— Section 4: Determine if there are Feasible Sunken Oil Containment Techniques This section notes that containment of sunken oil may not always be feasible. It includes summaries of the advantages and limitations of possible options under mostly low-flow conditions. — Section 5: Select Sunken Oil Recovery Techniques This section includes a checklist of the types of information you will need about the oil and spill conditions to start evaluating which sunken oil recovery techniques may be effective for the spill. There is a list of action items to guide the development and approval of a sunken oil recovery plan. It also includes tabular summaries of the advantages and limitations of possible recovery techniques, along with a matrix to guide selection of the best combination of techniques. — Section 6: Waste Stream Management Because waste generation during sunken oil recovery operations is a very important consideration in both selection of the removal method and the types of waste stream treatment methods to be implemented, this section provides guidance on best practices for handling the oil, liquids, and solids generated during a response. — Section 7: Safety Considerations Safety is of paramount importance during all phases of sunken oil detection and recovery, as it is during any response. Therefore, this section includes safety considerations throughout the response. It also includes a checklist of the issues to consider when developing a plan to conduct sunken oil detection and recovery operations, including: — general safety; — equipment mobilization and heavy lift operations; — hydraulic submersible pumps and transfer operations; — diving operations. 2 Determine the Potential for the Oil to Sink Under the Spill Conditions Key points include the following. — The API gravity or density of the oil relative to that of the receiving water will determine if the oil will sink initially after release to a water body. — In seawater, oils with an API of less than ~6.5 or a density of greater than 1.03 g/cm 3 will sink if the currents are weak or the turbulence is low. — In estuarine waters, be aware that the oil might be suspended in the water column in the freshwater part of the estuary or river, then refloat once it reaches the higher salinity water closer to the mouth of the estuary. — Conversely, oil that floats or is submerged in estuarine waters may become submerged or sink if transported into less dense freshwater. — If the currents or turbulence are strong, oils heavier than the receiving water will become suspended in the water column and only sink in low-flow areas downcurrent of the release. These low-flow and low-energy areas should be targets for searching for sunken oil. Determine the potential for the spilled oil to sink over time. — Experience has shown that oils that initially float can sink after mixing with sediment. This can occur by two pathways. — Floating oil that mixes with sediment after being stranded on a beach can be reworked and moved seaward by wave action to sink in the adjacent nearshore waters. — Floating oil can mix with sand in the surf zone and sink, without ever stranding onshore. — Some oils are lighter than water initially but become close to or even heavier than the density of freshwater once the lighter fractions are lost by evaporation. These oils can sink as either bulk oil or oil-particle aggregates on the bottom of the water body. — Highly viscous oils can have an increased risk of sinking over time. — They can entrain a lot of free water, which can increase their density. — They tend to be stickier, which can increase the amount of sediment uptake if stranded on the shoreline or mixed with sediments in the water column, which can increase their density.

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