Home>API standards>API TR 977-2018 pdf free download

API TR 977-2018 pdf free download

API TR 977-2018 pdf free download.ASTM C704 Test Variability Reduced to Allow Further Optimization of Erosion-resistant Refractories for Critical Oil Refining Applications.
2 Referenced Documents API 936, Refractory Installation Quality Control—Inspection and Testing, Monolithic Refractory Linings and Materials (201 4) API TR 978, Monolithic Refractories: Manufacture, Properties, and Selection API TR 979, Applications of Refractory Lining Materials API TR 980, Monolithic Refractories: Installation and Dryout ASTM C704/C704M 1 , Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Refractory Materials at Room Temperature (201 5). ASTM C1 036, Standard Specification for Flat Glass ASTM E691 -09, Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method 3 Terms and Definitions 3.1 abrasion resistance The ability to withstand the effects of eroding particles for an extended period without the significant loss of material or other damage. Often referred to as “erosion resistance” in fluid solids units, such as FCC units, which is technically incorrect, but commonly understood in refining jargon. EXAMPLE Ability of a refractory lining in an FCCU transfer line to retain thickness when exposed to circulating catalyst in the process stream. NOTE For refractory materials, abrasion resistance is measured in the form of eroded volume loss in accordance with ASTM C704/C704M.
3.5 catalyst A substance that causes or accelerates a chemical change without being permanently affected by the reaction. EXAMPLE The catalyst circulated between reactor and regenerator vessels in the FCC process. 3.6 compliance datasheet A list of mechanical and chemical properties for a specified refractory material that are warranted by the manufacturer to be met if and when the product is tested by the listed procedure in accordance with API Standard 936. 3.7 cyclones (of FCCUs or fluid coking units) Components, usually internal, used for inertial (momentum) separation of particulate solids from flue or product gas. Cyclones can be in multiple stages, including an inlet, barrel, cone, dust pot, dip leg, and outlet crossover, as illustrated in Figure 2.
3.9 erosion of refractories The mechanical wearing away of the surfaces of refractory bodies in service by the washing action of moving liquids or gasses such as molten slags or high-velocity particles. In the case of moving solid particles, this is more correctly termed “abrasion.” 3.10 erosion resistance (as it applies to ASTM C704/C704M test results) Volume of refractory loss, measured in cubic centimeters, after abrading the surface of a test specimen with 2.2 lb (1 000 gm) of SiC grit, in accordance with ASTM C704/C704M. NOTE The lower the amount of cubic centimeters (cm 3 ) lost, the higher the erosion (abrasion) resistance of the refractory. 3.11 erosion service Refractory application in which erosion resistance is a determining feature of lining service life. EXAMPLE Applications in transfer lines, overhead lines, cyclone linings, and deflector shields of fluid solids units. 3.12 float glass Soda-lime glass, made by floating molten glass on a bed of molten metal, which is used as a calibration standard for ASTM C704/C704M requirements. 3.13 fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) An oil refining unit consisting of reactor and regenerator vessels and interconnecting piping in which particulate catalyst is circulated at elevated temperatures to upgrade low-value feedstock to high-value products such as heating oil, gasoline components, and chemical feedstocks (see Figure 3). NOTE 1 Also known as a “cat cracker.” NOTE 2 For additional information see API TR 979. 3.14 fluid coking unit A thermal cracking process where feed is injected directly into the reactor, forming hydrocarbon products that are generally heavier than those made by catalyst cracking and particulate coke similar in size and flow characteristics to FCCU catalysts. The unit consists of two major vessels with transfer lines circulating fluidized coke particles between the reactor [operating at 900 °F (480 °C)] and the burner [operating at 1 300 °F to 1 350 °F (700 °C to 730 °C)].

Related PowerPoint Templates

Template Categories
Popular Tags