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API TR 979-2018 pdf free download

API TR 979-2018 pdf free download.Applications of Refractory Lining Materials.
1 Scope This technical report focuses specifically on the information on the applications of refractories contained in two American Concrete Institute (ACI) refractories documents: — ACI 547.R-79, State-of-the-Art Report: Refractory Concrete; — ACI 547.1 R-89, State-of-the-Art Report: Refractory Plastics and Ramming Mixes. The original content of these ACI reports was focused primarily on steel- and glass-making applications, which represent the largest refractory markets. API, in tailoring the revision of this content to the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI), has greatly expanded the text pertaining to the specialized oil refining and petrochemical processing applications. At the same time, API has retained and updated the information covering applications outside of the HPI (see Section 5) because of the similarities and applicability that this information has for refractory professionals in these other industries. 2 Referenced Documents API Standard 560, Fired Heaters for General Refinery Service API Standard 936, Refractory Installation Quality Control—Inspection and Testing Monolithic Refractory Linings and Materials API Technical Report 978, Monolithic Refractories: Manufacture, Properties, and Selection 1 API Technical Report 980, Monolithic Refractories: Installation and Dryout 1 ACI SP-34, Handbook on Concrete Reinforcement and Detailing ASTM C71 , Standard Terminology Relating to Refractories ASTM C638, Standard Descriptive Nomenclature of Constituents of Aggregates for Radiation-Shielding Concrete ASTM C704, Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Refractory Materials at Room Temperature 3 Terms and Definitions NOTE See ASTM C71 and API 936 for additional information on definitions. 3.1 abrasion resistance The ability to withstand the effects of eroding particles for an extended period without significant loss of material or other damage.
3.2 casting The application of wet mixed castable refractory by placing (possibly with the aid of vibration), pouring, or rodding. 3.3 catalyst A substance that causes or accelerates a chemical change without being permanently affected by the reaction. EXAMPLE Catalyst circulated between reactor and regenerator vessels in FCC process. 3.4 cyclones (of a FCCU or fluid coking unit) Components, usually internal, used for inertial (momentum) separation of particulate solids from flue or product gas. EXAMPLE See Figure 5. 3.5 erosion of refractories Mechanical wearing away of the surfaces of refractory bodies in service by the washing action of moving liquids or gases, such as molten slags or high-velocity particles. NOTE In the case of moving solid particles, this is more correctly termed “abrasion.” 3.6 erosion service Refractory application in which erosion resistance is a determining feature of lining service life. EXAMPLE Refractory lining applications, such as transfer lines, overhead lines, cyclone linings, and deflector shields of fluid solids units. 3.7 fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) A refining process consisting of reactor and regenerator vessels and interconnecting piping in which particulate catalyst is circulated at elevated temperatures to upgrade low-value feedstock to high-value products, such as heating oil, gasoline components, and chemical feedstocks.
3.10 hexmetal A metallic anchoring system constructed of metal strips joined together to form hexagonal enclosures where erosion-resistant refractory is packed after welding to the base plate steel. NOTE Thickness is usually 3 / 4 in. or 1 in. (19 mm or 25 mm). 3.11 insulating firebrick A refractory brick characterized by low thermal conductivity and low heat capacity. NOTE Also known as “IFB.” 3.12 lightweight castables Refractory concrete having a unit weight less than 1 00 lb/ft 3 (1 602 kg/m 3 ). 3.13 material qualification testing Pre-installation testing of refractory materials in which production lots of refractories manufactured for a specific installation are sampled and tested to confirm that they meet specified physical property requirements. 3.14 medium-weight castables Castable refractories with densities roughly between 1 00 lb/ft 3 and 1 50 lb/ft 3 (1 600 kg/m 3 and 2400 kg/m 3 ). 3.15 normal-weight castable Refractory concrete having a unit weight greater than 1 00 lb/ft 3 (1 600 kg/m 3 ). 3.16 ramming The use of compressive force or impact to deform a stiff refractory mix, causing it to completely fill the intended volume (e.g. a hexmetal cell) and/or fully bond or join to previously placed refractory (e.g. thick plastic linings).

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