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ASME B31.1A-2008 pdf download

ASME B31.1A-2008 pdf download.Addenda to ASME B31.1-2007 Power Piping.
The ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping consists of a number of individually published Sections, each an American National Standard, under the direction of ASME Committee B31, Code for Pressure Piping. Rules for each Section have been developed consider- ing the need for application of specific requirements for various types of pressure piping. Applications consid- ered for each Code Section include: B31.1 Power Piping: piping typically found in electric power generatingstations, inindustrialand institutional plants, geothermal heating systems, and central and dis- trict heating and cooling systems; B31.3 Process Piping: piping typically found in petro- leum refineries, chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants, and related pro- cessing plants and terminals; B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids: piping transporting products whicharepredominatelyliquid betweenplants and terminals and within terminals, pumping, regulat- ing, and metering stations; B31.5 Refrigeration Piping: piping for refrigerants and secondary coolants; B31.8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping Systems: piping transporting products which are pre- dominately gas between sources and terminals, includ- ing compressor, regulating, and metering stations; and gas gathering pipelines; B31.9 Building Services Piping: piping typically found inindustrial,institutional,commercial, and publicbuild- ings, and in multi-unit residences, which does not require the range of sizes, pressures, and temperatures covered in B31.1; B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems: piping transporting aqueous slurries between plants and termi- nals and within terminals, pumping, and regulating sta- tions. This is the B31.1 Power Piping Code Section. Hereafter, in this Introduction and in the text of this Code Section B31.1, where the word Code is used without specific identification, it means this Code Section. It is the owner’s responsibility to select the Code Section which most nearly applies to a proposed piping installation. Factors to be considered by the owner include: limitations of the Code Section, jurisdictional requirements, and the applicability of other codes and standards. All applicable requirements of the selected Code Section shall be met. For some installations, more than one Code Section may apply to differentparts ofthe installation.
displacement stress: a stress developed by the self- constraint of the structure. It must satisfy an imposed strain pattern rather than being in equilibrium with an external load. The basic characteristic of a displacement stress is that it is self-limiting. Local yielding and minor distortions can satisfy the displacement or expansion conditions which cause the stress to occur. Failure from one application of the stress is not to be expected. Fur- ther, the displacement stresses calculated in this Code are “effective” stresses and are generally lower than those predicted by theory or measured in strain-gage tests. 1 peak stress: the highest stress in the region under con- sideration. The basic characteristic of a peak stress is that it causes no significant distortion and is objection- able only as a possible source ofa fatigue crack initiation or a brittle fracture. This Code does not utilize peak stress as a design basis, but rather uses effective stress values for sustained stress and for displacement stress; the peak stress effect is combined with the displacement stress effect in the displacement stress range calculation. sustainedstress: astressdeveloped byanimposedload- ing which is necessary to satisfy the laws of equilibrium between external and internal forces and moments. The basic characteristic of a sustained stress is that it is not self-limiting. If a sustained stress exceeds the yield strength of the material through the entire thickness, the prevention of failure is entirely dependent on the strain- hardening properties of the material. A thermal stress is notclassified as a sustained stress. Further, the sustained stresses calculated in this Code are “effective” stresses and are generally lower than those predicted by theory or measured in strain-gage tests. stress-relieving: see heat treatments.

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