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ASME PTC 70-2009 pdf download

ASME PTC 70-2009 pdf download.Ramp Rates.
parties to the test: for acceptance tests, those individuals designated in writing by the purchaser, lender’s engi- neer, architect engineer (or facility supplier), and machine suppliers to make the decisions required in this Code. Other agents, advisors, engineers, etc., hired by the parties to the test to act on their behalf or otherwise, may ormay notbe considered, by this Code, to be parties to the test. precision: the closeness of agreement between a group of measured values. precision error: see random error. ramp rate: the average ramp rate is the load change divided by the amount of time required to move from the initial load to the final load. The instantaneous ramp rate is the slope at a given load in the measured load change process. random error: sometimes called precision error; the true random error, which characterizes a member of a set of measurements [varies in a random, Gaussian (normal) manner, from measurement to measurement]. rated power: the power output of the power system when operating at specified control and ambient conditions. secondary variables: variables that are measured but do not enter into the calculation. sensitivity: see influence coefficient; the ratio of the change in a result to a unit change in a parameter. shutdown: the actions required to safelystop the electrical generation from an operating power producing facility. startup: the actions required to safely reach a predefined minimum load for an electrical generation facility in a shutdown or off-line condition.
3-1 OBJECT OF TEST The object of the test shall be agreed upon by the parties to the test and shall be defined in writing before the test(s) commences. Test objectives may include the determination of the following: (a) startup ramp rate or elapsed time (b) shutdown ramp rate or elapsed time (c) overall ramp rate from 0% to 100% load (d) ramp rates from minimum load to maximum load or from maximum to minimum load (e) ramp rates from one nominal load to another (f) ramp rates for a given set of equipment in operation (g) ramp rates for power augmentation equipment (such as chillers or duct burners) (h) ramp rates from one specified process or equip- ment condition to another Elapsed time between test start and stop conditions may be the objective rather than a ramp rate. In the case where ramp rate varies over the course of the test, elapsed time rather than a rate may be preferable to avoid ambiguity. 3-2 PREPARATIONS FOR TESTING 3-2.1 General Precautions Reasonable precautions should be takenwhenprepar- ing to conduct a Code test. Indisputable records shall be made to identify and distinguish the equipment to be tested and the exact method of testing selected. Descriptions, drawings, or photographs all may be used to give a permanent, explicit record. Instrument location shall be predetermined, agreed to by the parties to the test, and described in detail in test records. Redundant, calibrated instruments should be provided for those instruments susceptible to in-service failure or breakage and to improve the uncertainty of the results. 3-2.2 Agreements Prior to any tests there shall be agreement on the exact method of testing and the methods of measurement, including the following: (a) object of test. (b) location and timing of test. (c) test boundaries. (d) selection of instruments: number, location, type.
(e) method of calibration of instruments. (f) confidentiality of test results. (g) number of copies of original data required. (h) data to be recorded, method of recording and archiving data. (i) values of measurement uncertainty and method of determining overall test uncertainty. (j) method ofoperating equipmentunder test, includ- ing that of any auxiliary equipment, the performance of which may influence the test result. (k) methods of establishing operating conditions as near as possible to those specified at the beginning of, during, and at the conclusion of the test. (l) system alignment or isolation. (m) organization of personnel, including designation of engineer in responsible charge of test. (n) duration and number of test runs. (o) frequency of observations. (p) initial conditions, including equipment tempera- ture and pressures at the start of the ramp. (q) methods of computing results. (r) method of comparing test results with specified performance objectives. (s) conditions for rejection of outlier data or runs. (t) intent of contract or specification if ambiguities or omissions appear evident. (u) pretest inspections. (v) the startingand endinggenerationlevels, between which ramp rates will be measured.

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