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ASME STB-1-2020 pdf download

ASME STB-1-2020 pdf download.Guideline on Big Data/Digital Transformation Workflows and Applications for the Oil and Gas Industry.
Civil and structural components include the foundations and structures that support all oil and gas equipment. Foundations are fabricated with concrete, earth or steel. Structures are fabricated from concrete and steel. These materials are used both onshore and offshore. Offshore structures include fixed steel platforms, floating steel vessels and platforms, concrete gravity-based structures and floating concrete structures. Offshore also includes subsea foundations fabricated from steel that support subsea production equipment such as manifolds, distribution equipment, and flowline connection systems. Data of interest for structures are strains, stresses, vibration, corrosion, and deflection. The performance of foundations is influenced by the geotechnical considerations and long-term soil condition. Soil can be disturbed by water, drought, earthquakes, subsea currents, and wave interaction in shallow water. 3.4 Pipelines/Storage Pipelines and local flowlines are the main transport mechanism for hydrocarbons. At either end of the pipeline, the hydrocarbons are stored in large tanks. Along the length of pipelines, inline compressor or pump stations maintain pressures and gas/fluid flow rates. Local field flowlines are gathered into manifolds that connect into larger pipeline systems. Many pipelines are buried to safeguard them and prevent disruption of roads and rail. Pipelines eventually transport to “tank farms” or to refineries/LNG Plants.
The Health and Safety of workers in oil and gas applies to office workers, manufacturing facility workers, and workers in drilling, production and refining. Companies that employ the workers should ideally at a minimum provide safe environments and work processes according to government and industry regulations. For example, in the United States, this is governed by agencies such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), US Coast Guard, Bureau of Environmental Enforcement (BSEE), and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM). Most states also have local safety agencies. In the United Kingdom, this is governed by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), and many European countries are governed by European Union OSHA (EU-OSHA). The American Petroleum Institute (API) also provides guidance on safe work practices. The Health and Safety of workers is considered the “license” to operate in the oil and gas industry. Leading corporations have high standards for health and safety and expect to be best-in-class performers. Health and Safety are communicated with leading and lagging metrics that help indicate the dedication to safe working conditions and track incidents to provide transparency to customers and regulators. Engineering design is critical to the safety of operations of facilities. Hazardous Identification and Assessment (HAZID) and Hazardous Operations (HAZOPS) are conducted during the design and engineering phases to identify and prevent or mitigate unsafe conditions and responses by workers. Data of interest in lagging indicators are near misses, first aids, lost time incidents, property damage, stand downs, workers compensation insurance costs, and fatalities. Leading indicators include results of HAZIDs, HAZOPS, safety training, employee safety observations, and job safety analyses. The data collected contains unstructured reports, training documents and engineering design documents.Supply Chain is a business function that is closely related to engineering design and the successful construction and operation of oil and gas facilities. Each system, subsystem and component must be designed by engineers according to specifications, requisitioned by the engineer to Supply Chain for purchase, manufactured or fabricated according to the specifications’ quality plans, tested, transported to site, commissioned and then started. Data is collected on each item or raw material for each step of the process. This quantitative data is created and stored on the ERP system of companies and then communicated to suppliers. Scheduling and planning are critical to the success of a project and the eventual startup of the facility. The logistics of manufacturing/fabrication and then delivery to site requires data-intensive planning that includes costs, time to fabricate, time to transport, time to test and commission. Prescriptive analytics that optimize logistics are critical to meeting multiple and complex deadlines. Quality inspections at each stage of the activity are report-intensive and create volumes of unstructured data. Predictive analytics on suppliers can reduce risk by analyzing performance and preparing forecasts. Figure 3-10 provides an overview of Supply Chain Analytics considerations.

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